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Lesson 36 الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Declension of the Present Verbإِعْرَابُ الفِعْلِ المُضِارِعِ

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  1. First case of the present verb is the Rafξ رَفْعٌ. The present verb is originally in the Rafξ case. Consider the following example of a question using “ayna” (أَيْنَ) and the answer to it:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

Where do you go, my son?

/Ilā ayna satadhhab-u yā bunayya?/

إِلَى أَيْنَ سَتَذْهَبُ يَا بُنَيَّ؟

I will go to visit my friends

/Sa'adhahab-u liziyārati aŝdiqā'ī/

سَأَذْهَبُ لِزِيارَةِ أَصْدِقَائِي

  1. The second case of the present verb is the naŝb نَصْبٌ, where the case-ending of the last letter changes from Đammah ضَمّةٍ  to Fatħah فَتْحَةٍ when it is preceded by certain particles, which we will learn latter in this lesson. Consider the following example of an yes/no question using “hal” (هَلْ) and the answer to it:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

Will you live in Egypt?

/Hal sataskun-u fī miŝra?/

هَلْ سَتَسْكُنُ فِي مِصْرَ؟

No, I will not live in Egypt but I will to visit it

/Lā, lan askun-a fī miŝr wa lākin urīdu an azūr-a-ha faqaŧ/

لا، لَنْ أَسْكُنَ فِي مِصْرَ وَلَكِنْ أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَزُورَها فَقَطْ.

  1. The third case of the present verb declension is the Ĵazm جَزْمٌ where the case-ending of the last letter changes from the Đammah to Sukūn. Consider the following examples of present verbs preceded by Ĵazm particles “” and “lam”:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

The student has not drunk milk

/Lam yashrabi ŧ-ŧâlibu al-labana/

لَمْ يَشْرَبِ الطَّالِبُ اللَّبَنَ

Do not stay up long, lest your body should be exhausted

/La tas-har kathīran fa'inna as-sahara yutξibu al-ĵisma/

لا تَسْهَرْ كَثِيرًا فَإنَّ السَّهَرَ يُتْعِبُ الْجِسْمَ.

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