Lesson 32– الدَّرْسُ الثَّانِي وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Sound Verb and Defective Verb – الفِعْلُ الصَّحِيحُ والمُعْتَلُّ

Types of Defective Verbs - أَنْوَاعُ الْفِعْلِ الْمُعْتَلِّ

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  • The type of an Arabic defective verb is determined according to the place of the defective letter in it (beginning, middle and last), such as وَعَدَ, قَالَ and سَعَى. This lesson elaborates the types of Arabic defective verbs.
    1. A defective verb with one defective letter:

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أَمْثِلَةٌ

Examples

مَكَانُ حَرْفِ الْعِلَّةِ

Place of the defective letter

الْفِعْلُ

Verb

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وَعَدَ

A past-form verb beginning with a defective letter. It is always in the past form, because the present form verb may begin with the letter yaa’, such as /Yaktubu/, i.e. to write. The yaa’ letter here is not a defective letter, but it just indicates the present form of the verb.

Note: a past-form verb never begins with the long vowel (a)

المِثَالُ

Modal (mithāl)

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وَقَفَ

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وَهِمَ

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يَئِسَ

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يَبَسَ

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يَمَنَ

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مُضَارِعٌ

Present

مَاضٍ

past

A past- or present-form verb including a defective letter in the middle

الأَجْوَفُ

Hollow (aĵwaf)

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يَقُولُ

قالَ

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يَبِيعُ

بَاعَ

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يَنَامُ

نَامَ

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يَخُونُ

خَانَ

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مُضَارِعٌ

Present

مَاضٍ

Past

A past- or present-form verb ending with a defective letter

النَّاقِصُ

Deficient (naqiŝ)

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يَدْعُو

دَعَا

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يَهْدِي

هَدَى

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يَنْوِي

نَوَى

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يَبْقَى

بَقِيَ

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يَرْجُو

رَجَا

2-   A defective verb with two defective letters:

أَمْثِلَةٌ

Examples

مَكَانُ حَرْفِ الْعِلَّةِ

Place of the defective letters

الْفِعْلُ

Verb

وَقَى

A verb including two defective letters separated by another sound letter

اللَّفِيفُ المَفْرُوق

Mixed Separated

(lafīf mafruuq)

وَعَى

وَلِيَ

وَشَى

هَوَى

A verb including two joined defective letters

اللَّفِيف المَقْرُون

Mixed joined

(lafīf maqruun)

نَوَى

حَوَى

قَوِيَ

رَوَى










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