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Lesson 36 الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Declension of the Present Verbإِعْرَابُ الفِعْلِ المُضِارِعِ

Present verb in the Rafξ  case

  • Study the verbs in the following examples. All verbs are present and at the Rafξ  رَفْعٌ case:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

The student likes his teacher so much

Yuhibb-u al-ŧâlibu ustādhah-u kathīran

يُحِبُّ الطَّالِبُ أُسْتَاذَهُ كَثِيرًا.

As he teaches him all that he knows

Fahuwa yuξallim-u-hu kulla mā ξindahu min al-khibrah

فَهُوَ يُعَلِّمُهُ كُلَّ مَا عِنْدَهُ مِنَ الْخِبْرَةِ.

And does not conceal any information from him

Wa la yabkhal-u ξalayhi bi’ayyati  maξlūmatin

وَلا يَبْخَلُ عَلَيْهِ بِأَيَّةِ مَعْلُومَةٍ.

And does not get upset about his frequent inquiries

Wa la yaghdab-u min kathrati as'ilatihi

وَلا يَغْضَبُ مِنْ كَثْرَةِ أَسْئلَتِهِ.

But he feels happy at these questions

Bal yakūn-u saξīdan bihādhihi l-as’ilati

بَلْ يَكُونُ سَعِيدًا بِهَذِه الأَسْئِلَةِ.

So the student respects his teacher

Wa lihādhā yahtarim-u al-tālibu ustadhahu

وَلِهَذَا يَحْتَرِمُ الطَّالِبُ أُسْتاذَهُ.

And obeys him and does not oppose any demand

Wa yutīξ-u-hu wa la yarfud-u lahu talaban

وَيُطِيعُهُ وَلا يَرْفُضُ لَهُ طَلَبًا.

  • Looking at these examples, we find that all the verbs are present and at the Rafξ  رَفْعٌ case, i.e. the case-ending of the last letter is Đammah ضَمَّةٌ (ـُـ), which is pronounced /-u/. The present verb is originally in the Rafξ  case unless it is preceded by Naŝb or Ĵazm particles.
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