Lesson 93 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّالِثُ وَالتِّسْعُونَ

Patterns and Meanings of Augmented Verbs - أَوْزانُ الأفْعالِ الْمَزيدَةِ وَمعانِيها

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • We’ve learnt earlier that the Arabic verbs are morphologically divided into two categories:

1-    The abstract verbs الأَفْعَالُ الْمُجَرَّدَةُ:

These verbs consist of the original root letters (regardless the conjugation suffixes or prefixes).

2-    The augmented verbs الأَفْعَالُ الْمَزِيدَةُ:

  • These verbs consist of the original root letters plus one, two or three of the augmented letters (regardless the conjugation suffixes or prefixes).
  • As we learnt the abstract verbs in detail in the previous lesson, lesson 92, we will learn in this lesson the patterns of the augmented verbs in detail.
  • Arabic grammarians stated that the augmented letters are exclusively those letters which are found in the Arabic word سَأَلْتُمُونِيهَا, literary meaning “you asked me it”, but these ten letters included in that word could be add to a noun or a verb. If we talk about only verbs, the augmented letters will be only five (أ -  ت - س - ن - ا) that will be studied in this lessons In-Shaa’-Allaah (Allah willing).
  • But, our study of the augmented verb will be slightly different from our study of the abstract verbs. The difference lies in that we will study the forms and meanings, i.e. we will also study how the augmented letter may affect the meaning of the original root.
  • The augmented verbs are divided into four categories:

1-    Triple verb augmented with one letter الْفِعْلُ الثُّلاثِيُّ المَزِيدُ بِحَرْفٍ:

The verb in this category could be in one of the following three patterns:





AfƐala أَفْـعَـلَ

Initial Hamzah

أَجْلَسْتُ خَالِدًا عَلَى الْكُرْسِيِّ.

I made Khalid sit on the chair.

FaƐƐala فَـعَّـلَ

Doubling the medial root letter

قَبَّلَ الأَبُ اِبْنَهُ.

The father kissed his son.

FāƐala فَـاعَلَ

Alif after the initial letter

خَاصَمَ الرَّجُلُ زَوْجَتَهُ.

The man was at odds with his wife.

2-    Triple verb augmented with two letters:

The verb in this category could be in one of the following five patterns:





IfaƐala اِفْتَعَلَ

Initial Hamzah and medial Tā’

اِحْتَرَمَ الطَالِبُ مَوْعِدَهَ.

The student respected his appointment.

TafaƐƐala تَفَعَّلَ

Initial Tā’ and doubling the medial root letter

تَقَدَّمَ الطَّالِبُ فِي دراسَتِهِ.

The student made progress in his study.

TafāƐala تَفاعَلَ

Initial tā’ and medial Alif

تَنافَسَ الطُّلابُ عَلَى الجَائِزَةِ.

The students competed for the prize.

InfaƐala اِنْفَعَلَ

Initial Alif and Nūn

اِنْكَسَرَ الْكُوبُ.

The glass was broken.

IfƐalla اِفْعَـلَّ

Initial Alif and doubling the final root letter

اِبْيَضَّ شَعْرُ الرَّجُلِ.

The hair of the man became white.

3-    Triple verbs augmented with three letters:

The verb in this category could be in one of the following pattern:





IstafƐala اِسْتَفْعَلَ

Initial Alif, Sīn and Tā’.

اِسْتَخْرَجَ الطَّالِبُ شَهادَةً

The student

4-    Quadruple augmented verbs:

The verb in this category could be in one of the following two patterns: TafaƐlala تفعْلَلَ and IfƐanlala افعنْلَلَ.





TafaƐlala تَفَعْلَلَ

زيادة التاء

تَدَحْرَجَتِ الْكُرَةُ.

The ball has been rolled over.


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