Lesson 60 – الدَّرْسُ السِّتُّونَ

Annuller particles (/inna/ and its sisters)- الحـُرُوفُ النَّاسِخَـةُ (إنَّ وأَخواتُها)

/inna/ and its sisters with the dual and the sound plural noun – إنَّ وَأخواتُها مع الاسم الْمُثَنَّى وَالجَمْع

  • We are still in lesson sixty of our free Arabic language course. This Arabic course with images and audios will help you learn Arabic.
  • We now clearly understand what /inna/ and its sisters are, what their meanings and their function are, and why they are called annullers.
  • We also understand that they change the subject to the accusative case, so if the subject is a singular noun it will be originally signed with /fatħah/ on its last letter. we are going to learn about the dual and plural subjects in this part In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).

    1- The dual:
    We learnt in lesson 17 that the dual is a noun ending with (
    انِ /āni) in the nominative case, and (ينِ /ayni/) in the accusative or genitive case. It indicates two units of the countable singular noun, as shown in the following examples:



















  • We also learnt in an earlier lesson that the subject and the predicate of the normal nominal sentence are in nominative case, so both of them are signed originally with /đammah/ if they are singular. If any or both of them are dual they will be signed with /alif/ instead. Consider the following examples:







The two boys are active

الوَلَدانِ نَشِيطَانِ

The boy is active

الوَلَدُ نَشِيطٌ

The two students are hardworking

الطَّالِبَانِ مُجْتَهِدَانِ

The student is hardworking

الطَّالِبُ مُجْتَهِدٌ

  •  When /inna/ and its sisters fall in the beginning of the nominal sentence the subject is changed to the accusative case. If the subject is singular it will be originally signed with /fatħah/ on its last letter, while if it is dual it will be signed with the letter /yaa’/ before its final letter. The /yaa’/ is the sign of the accusative case of the dual noun, while the penultimate /alif/ is the nominative sign. Consider attentively the following examples: 







Indeed, the two students are active

إِنَّ الوَلَدَيْنِ نَشِيطَانِ

/inna al waladayni nashīŧâni/

Indeed, the student is active

إنَّ الوَلَدَ نَشِيطٌ

/inna al walada nashīŧun/

Indeed, the two telephones are broken

إنَّ الهَاتِفَيْنِ فَاسِدَانِ

/inna al hātifayni fāsidāni/

Indeed,  the telephone is broken

إنَّ الهَاتِفَ فَاسِدٌ

/inna al hātifa fāsidun/

The two planes may fly

لَعَلَّ الطَّائِرَتَيْنِ تَطيرَانِ

/laξalla aŧ ŧâ’ratayni taŧīrâni/

The plane may fly

لَعَلَّ الطَّائِرَةُ تَطيرُ

/laξalla aŧ ŧâ’ata taŧīru/

But the two teachers are good

لَكِنَّ المُعَلِّمَيْنِ جَيِّدَانِ

/lākinna al muξallimayni ğayyidāni/

But the teacher is good

لَكِنَّ المُعَلِّمَ جَيِّدٌ

/lākinna al muξallima ğayyidun/

The two rooms may be clean

لَيْتَ الغُرْفَتَيْنِ نَظِيفَتَانِ

/layta al ghurfatayni nađhifatāni/

The room may be clean

لَيْتَ الغُرْفَةَ نَظِيفَةٌ

/layta al ghurfata nadhīfatun/

  • The sound plural (masculine and feminine)
    We studied in earlier lessons the sound masculine and the sound feminine plurals. We learnt that the sound masculine plural (
    جمع المذكر السالم) is ended with (ـونَ /ūna/) in the nominative case, and it is ended with (ـينَ /īna) in the accusative or genitive case.
    See the following examples (for revision purposes):





The teachers came

حَضَرَ المُعَلِّمُونُ


I saw the teachers

رَأَيْتُ المُعَلِّمِينَ


I went to the teachers

ذَهَبْتُ إلى الْمُعَلِّمينَ


  • We also learnt that the sound feminine plural is ended with (ات /aat/). It is signed with /đammah/ on its final /taa'/ in the nominative case, and it is signed with /kasrah/ in each of the accusative and the genitive case. Let's see the following revision examples:





The female teachers came

حَضَرَتِ المُعَلِّماتُ


I saw the female teachers

رَأَيْتُ الْمُعَلِّمَاتِ


I went to the female teachers

ذهَبْتُ إلى المُعَلِّماتِ


  • We also studied in this lesson that the noun of /inna/ and its sisters is always in accusative case, and the predicate is in the nominative case, so if any of the noun (subject) and the predicate is a sound plural we will use the suitable signs mentioned above, instead of the regular signs of the singular noun. Consider the following examples of sound plural sentences with /inna/ and its sisters:

Sound feminine plural

Sound masculine plural








The female racers are winners

إنَّ الْمُتَسَابِقَاتِ فَائِزَاتٌ

/inna al mutasābiqâti fā'izātun/

The racers are winners (won)

إنَّ الْمُتَسَابِقِينَ فَائِزُونَ

/inna al mutasābiqīna fā'izūna/

The racer (runner) is a winner (won)

إنَّ الْمُتَسَابِقَ فَائِزٌ

/inna almutasābiqa fāza/

If only the female workers are skilful

لَيْتَ العَامِلاتِ مُتْقِنَاتٌ

/layta al ξāmilāti mutqinātun/

If only the workers are skilful

لَيْتَ العَامِلِينَ مُتْقِنُونَ

/layta al ξāmilīna mutqinūna/

If only the worker is skilful

لَيْتَ العَامِلَ مُتْقِنٌ

/layta al ξāmila mutqinun/

As if the female writers are creative

كَأَنَّ الكاتِبَاتِ مُبْدِعَاتٌ

/ka'anna al kātibāti mubdiξātun/

As if the writers are creative

كَأَنَّ الكاتِبِينَ مُبْدِعُونَ

/ka'anna al kātibīna mubdiξūna/


As if the writer is a creative

كَأَنَّ الكاتِبَ مُبْدِعٌ

/ka'anna al kātiba mubdiξun/

The female farmers may be happy

لَعَلَّ الزَّارِعَاتِ سَعِيداتٌ

/laξalla az zāriξāti saξīdātun/

The farmers may be happy

لَعَلَّ الزَّارِعِينَ سَعِيدُونَ

/laξalla az zāriξīna saξīdūna/

The farmer may be happy

لَعَلَّ الزَّارِعَ سَعِيدٌ

/laξalla az zāriξa saξīdun/

If only the saleswomen are trustworthy

لَيْتَ البائِعَاتِ أَمِينَاتٌ

/layta al bā'iξāti amīnatun/

If only the salesmen are trustworthy

لَيْتَ البائِعِينَ أَمِينُونَ

/layta al bā'iξīna amīnūna/

If only the salesman is trustworthy

لَيْتَ البائِعَ أَمِينٌ

/layta al bā'ξa amīnun/

Indeed, the female engineers are clever

إنَّ المُهَنْدِسَاتِ بَارِعاتٌ

/inna al muhandisāti bāriξātun/

Indeed, the engineers are clever

إنَّ المُهَنْدِسِينَ بَارِعُونَ

/inna al muhandisīna bāriξūna/

Indeed, the engineer is clever

إنَّ المُهَنْدِسَ بَارِعٌ

/inna al muhandisa bāriξun/

  •  You may now clearly notice the difference between the declension of the singular and the declension of the dual or the sound plural when they fall as a noun of /inna/ and its sisters (subject), and when they fall as a predicate.