Lesson 87 – الدَّرْسُ السَّابِعُ والثَّمانون

The conditional sentence - جُمْلَة الشَّرطِ

The answer to the condition – جواب الشرط

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  • Unlike the Arabic verb of condition, the answer can be in the imperative form, conjugated in the future (i.e. preceded by“ سَسَوْف”), negated, in the negated imperative form, and it can also be a nominal sentence. But all these cases occur under a condition that the answer begins with the (fā’) of sanction فاء الجزاء (it can also be called (fā’) of answer فاء الجواب). Consider the following example:

English

Arabic

If you see your father, kiss his hand

إنْ رَأَيْتَ أَبَاكَ فَقَبِّلْ يَدَهُ

  • In the above mentioned example the answer to the condition is a verb conjugated in the imperative form, so that it should be preceded by (fā’) of the sanction فاء الجزاء.
  • Following are the cases in which the answer should be preceded by the (fā’) of sanction in detail:

1-            If the answer to the condition is a nominal sentence:

The answer to the condition

English

Arabic

إِنَّهُم مُجْتَهِدُونَ

If the students succeed, (this is because) they are hardworking indeed

إِنْ يَنْجَحِ الطُّلابُ فَإِنَّهُم مُجْتَهِدُونَ

هُمْ هادِئُونَ

However you excite them, they are tranquil

مَهْمَا تَسْتَثِرْهُم فَهُمْ هادِئُونَ

2-            If the answer to the condition is in the imperative (أمْر), questioning from (استِفْهام) or negated imperative (نَهْي), as in the following examples:

The answer to the condition

English

Arabic

اِشْرَبْ imperative

Wherever you find the water, drink!

حَيْثُما وَجَدْتَ الْماءَ فاشْرَبْ

لا تَرُدّnegated imperative

If someone blasphemed you, do not reply to him

إذا سَبَّكَ أَحَدٌ فلا تَرُدَّ عَلَيْهِ

 بأَيِّ شَيْءٍquestionin”

If you deny this, then what (else) will you believe?

إذا كَذَّبْتَ بِهَذَا فَبِأَيِّ شَيْءٍ تُصَدِّقُ؟

3-            If the answer to the condition is conjugated in the future (i.e. preceded by(س - سَوْفَ), as in the following examples:

The answer to the condition

English

Arabic

سَيُلاحِقُكَ

Wherever you go you destiny will follow you

أِيْنَما تَذْهَبْ فَسَيُلاحِقُكَ قَدَرُكَ

سَوْفَ أُسَاعِدُكَ

Work, and if you need help, I will help you.

اِعْمَلْ وَإن اِحْتَجْتَ مُسَاعَدَة فَسَوْفَ أُسَاعِدُكَ

4-            If the answer to the condition is in the past and preceded with (قدْ) the confirmative article, as in the following examples:

The answer to the condition

English

Arabic

قَدْ حَضَرَ الأُسْتاذُ

If the students come, (no problem because) the teacher (also) came.

إن يَحْضُرِ الطُّلابُ فَقَدْ حَضَرَ الأُسْتاذُ

  • Sometimes (قد) falls before the present verb, but in this case it is not a confirmative particle; rather it indicates probability (perhaps – maybe). In all case the answer to the condition when preceded with (قد) it should be started with the (fā’) of sanction فاء الجزاء.
  • Consider the following examples:

The answer to the condition

English

Arabic

فَقَدْ أُعْطِيكَ

If you ask me money, I perhaps give you

إذا سَأَلْتَنِي الْمَالَ فَقَدْ أُعْطِيكَ

فَقَدْ  يَصِلْ

Any man tries to arrive he may arrive

أَيُّ رَجُلٍ يُحاوِلُ الْوُصولَ فَقَدْ  يَصِلْ

5-            If the answer to the condition is negated (i.e. preceded with one of the negating particles as لالَنْ - لَمْ), as in the following examples:

The answer to the condition

English

Arabic

فَلَنْ يَزِيدَ وَزْنُكَ

However you eat, you weight will not increase

مَهْمَا تَأْكُلْ فَلَنْ يَزِيدَ وَزْنُكَ

فَلَنْ تَسْتَمْتِعَ بِلَعِبِكَ

Wherever you play, you will not enjoy your playing

حَيْثُما تَلْعَب فَلَنْ تَسْتَمْتِعَ بِلَعِبِكَ

 










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