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Lesson 36 الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Declension of the Present Verbإِعْرَابُ الفِعْلِ المُضِارِعِ

The present verb is Naŝb case

  • The second case of the present verb is Naŝb نَصْبٌ, i.e. the case-ending of the last letter is Fatħah فَتْحَةٌ (ـَـ), which is pronounced /-a/. Consider the following examples:

يَنَامَ

نَخْرُجَ

يَنْتَصِرَ

يَضِيعَ

Verb

Yanām-a

nakhruĵ-a

Yantasir-a

Yadhīξ-a

Transliteration

to sleep

to go out

to prevail

to be lost

Meaning

Translation

Transliteration

Example

No right will be lost if there is a claimer

Lan yadhīξ-a ħaqqun warā'ahu muŧâlib

لَنْ يَضِيعَ حَقٌّ وَرَاءَه مُطَالِبٌ.

Evil will never prevail over good

Lan yantaŝir-a al-sharru ξala al-khairi abadan

لَنْ يَنْتَصِرَ الشَّرُّ عَلَى الْخَيْرِ أَبَدًا.

We will not go out of the home until it stops rain

Lan nakhruĵ-a min al-baiti ħattan yantahi al-maŧaru

لَنْ نَخْرُجَ مِنْ الْبَيْتِ حَتَى يَنْتَهِي الْمَطَرُ.

The child will not sleep until he stops crying

Lan yanām-a al-ŧiflu hatta yakuffa ξan al-bukā'i

لَنْ يَنَامَ الطِّفْلُ حَتَّى يَكُفَّ عَنْ الْبُكَاءِ.

    1. The present verb is preceded by أَنْ (an), which is a present verb Naŝb particle. It differs from the Negative Lan, as أَنْ is a gerund particle, i.e. it makes the present verb after it like a gerund. Consider the following examples:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

I like Egypt and want to live there

Ana uhibbu misra wa urīdu an aξīsh-a hunaka

أَنا أُحِبُّ مِصْرَ وَأُرِيدُ أَنْ أَعِيشَ هُنَاكَ.

I want to study Arabic

Urīdu an adrus-a al-lughata al-ξarabiyata

أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَدْرُسَ اللُّغَةَ الْعَرَبِيَّةَ.

The teacher asks his student to write down the lesson

Yatlubu al-ustāzhu min al-tālibi an yaktub-a ad-darsa

يَطْلُبُ الأُسْتَاذُ مِنْ الطَّالِبِ أَنْ يَكْتُبَ الدَّرْسَ.

And read much

Wa an yaqra'-a kathīran

وَأَنْ يَقْرَأَ كَثِيرًا.

And this is help me to learn faster

Wa hāzha yusāξiduni an ataξallam-a bisurξatin

وَهَذَا يُسَاعِدُنِي عَلَى أَنْ أتَعَلَّمَ بِسُرْعَةٍ

  • The previous examples have the following verbs and below each is its gerund  مَصْدرٍ:

أَنْ أَتَعَلَّمَ

أَنْ يَقْرَأَ

أَنْ يَكْتُبَ

أَنْ أدْرُسَ

Verb infinitive preceded by “an”

an ataξallam-a

an yaqra'-a

an yaktub-a

an adrus-a

Transliteration

To learn

To read

To write

To study

Translation

تَعَلُّمٌ

قِرَاءَةٌ

كِتَابَةٌ

دِراسَةٌ

Gerund of the verb

Taξallum

Qirā'ah

Kitābah

Dirāsah

Transliteration

Learning

Reading

Writing

Studying

Meaning

  • From the previous examples we can make the gerund from particle أَنْ plus the present verb:
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