Lesson 26 – الدرس السَّادِسُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ
Composite Number (B) المركب العددي
Numbers from 13 to 19- الأَعْدَادُ مِنْ ثَلاثَةَ عَشَرَ إلَى تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ
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- In this section we will study the Arabic numbers from 13 to 19. These Arabic numbers have the same rules, therefore we will study them in one section In-Shā’-Allâh (God-willing).
- The composite numbers from 13 to 19 – e.g. (ثَلاثَةَ عَشَرَ) "thalathata ξashara" (thirteen) - are composed of two parts. The gender of each part depends on the gender of the noun that is being referred to. The first part is always opposite to the gender of the noun, and the second part is the same gender as the numbered noun.
- The first part may be feminine (ثلاثة) "thalathata" (three) or may be masculine (ثلاث) "thalatha". The second part may also be feminine (عَشْرَةَ) "ξashrata" (ten) or may be masculine (عَشَرَ) "ξashara" (ten). As above, the rule we apply here is related to the noun (that comes after the number). Here are some examples:
Fil-faŝl thalathata ashara ŧâliban
There are thirteen students in the class.
ћađarat thalathu ξashrata mudarrisatan
Thirteen lady teachers attended.
Dhabaћtu sittata ξashara diikan
I slaughtered sixteen roosters.
ذَبَحْتُ سِتَّةَ عَشَرَ دِيكًا
Hādha al-waladu ξumruhu tisξa ξashrata sanatan
This boy (young man) is nineteen years old.
هذا الوَلَدُ عُمْرُهُ تِسْعَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً
- In these examples, the first part of the number is opposite in gender to the numbered noun, while the second part is similar to it.
- Now we will explain the word-ending of the number and the numbered noun.
- The two parts of the composite number for numbers from 13 to 19 – e.g. (ثلاثةَ عشرَ) "thalathata ξashara" (thirteen) - have a fixed vowel, namely (فتحة) short vowel Fatћa, at the end of both parts.
- The numbered noun in this case always ends with a (فتحة) short vowel Fatћa. Take the following examples:
في قَرْيَتِي سَبْعَ عَشْرَةَ عائلَةً
Fi qaryati sabξa ξashrata ξā’ilatan
There are seventeen families in our village.
في فَصْلِي تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ صَدِيقًا
Fi faŝli tisξata ξashara ŝadiiqan
I have nineteen friends in the class.
- [Note that the "n" at the end of ξā’ilatan and ŝadiiqan is the (تنوين) Tanwīn (nunation; the root to pronounce the letter N), but both words end with the short vowel Fatћa]