Lesson 69 – الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ والسِّتُّونَ

The Circumstantial object (Adverbs of Time and Place) - الْمَفْعُولُ فِيهِ

Declinable adverbs – الظُّروف المُعْرَبة

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  • The Arabic adverbs are divided into two types according to its declension or indeclension as follows:

 

-          The declinable adverbs, which can be changed according to its position in the sentence.

-          The indeclinable adverbs, which have one vowel-ending and do not change whatever its position in the sentence is.

  • In this part we only study the declinable adverbs. The declinable adverbs have only two cases of declension as follows:

1-             The accusative case (this is the main case of the declinable adverb)

2-            The genitive case (after the preposition (فِي /fī)

Picture

English meaning

Example

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He stopped taking for a period

سَكَتَ عَنِ الكَلامِ دَهْرًا

/sakata ξan al kalāmi dahran/

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I lived in London for a long time

عِشْتُ فِي لَنْدَنَ زَمَنًا طَوِيلاً

/ξishtu fī landan zamanan ŧawīlan/

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I spent with my wife a beautiful time

قَضَيْتُ مَعَ زَوْجَتِي وَقتًا جَمِيلاً

/qađaytu maξa zawĵati waqtan ŧawīlan/

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I only slept one hour

مانِمْتُ إلا ساعَةً واحِدَةً

/mā nimtu illā sāξatan wāħidatan/

  • The adverb of place (ظرف المكان): When we study the declension of the adverb of place we notice that there are two cases as follows

Pictures

English meaning

Examples

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The car stopped in front of the house

وَقَفَت السَّيَّارةُ أَمامَ البَيْتِ

/waqafat as sayyāratu amāma al bayti/

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The director sat behind the camera

جَلَسَ المُخْرِجُ خَلْفَ الكامِيرا

/ĵalasa al mukhriĵu khlafa al camera/

  • When the adverb is derived from the stem of the verb, it also has to be in the accusative case

Verb

جَلَسَ

دَرَسَ

كَتَبَ

سَجَدَ

طَبَخَ

طارَ

Adverb

مَجْلِسَ

مَدْرَسَة

مَكْتَبَ

مَسْجِدَ

مَطْبَخَ

مَطارَ

Meaning

Sitting

School

Desk or office

Mosque

Kitchen

Airport

  • There is one condition under which these adverbs are in the accusative case: that they have to be mentioned with the verb of the same stem as follows:

Explanation

English meaning

Example

i.e. in the place where the scientists sit

I sat in the place of scientists

جَلَسْتُ مَجْلِسَ العُلَماء

/ĵalastu maĵlisa al ξulamā’i/

i.e. in the place where the pilgrims run

I run the track of pilgrims

سَعَيْتُ مَسْعَى الحُجَّاجِ

/saξaytu masξā al ħuĵĵāĵi/

i.e. in the place where

the rational people go

I (went) did as rationales

ذَهَبْتُ مَذْهَبَ العُقَلاءِ

/dhahabtu madhhaba al ξuqalā’i/

  • The genitive case: this occurs when the adverb is limited (not vague) as (بَيْتَقَرْيَة - شَقَّة) and not derived from the same stem of the verb, it has to be preceded with the preposition (فِي /fī/) which causes the genitive case as in the following examples:

English meaning

Example

I lived in a flat

سَكَنْتُ فِي شَقَّةٍ

/sakantu fī shaqqatin/

I stayed at the village

أَقَمْتُ فِي البَلَدِ

/aqamtu fī al baladi/

I prayed in the Mosque

صَلَّيْتُ فِي المَسْجِدِ

/ŝallaytu fī al masĵidi/

I brought the things from the market

اِشْتِرَيْتُ الأَشْياءَ مِنَ السُّوقِ

/ishtaraytu al ashyā’a min as sūqi/

I prefer the life of the village

أُفَضِّلُ الحَياةَ فِي الْقَرْيَةِ

/ufađđilu al ħayāta fī al qaryati/

 





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