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Madinah Arabic Learn Arabic Online
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Lesson 36 الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ إِعْرَابُ الفِعْلِ المُضِارِعِ

Ĵazm of Present verb

  • The third case of the present verb declension is the Ĵazm جَزْمُ where the case-ending of the last letter changes from the Đammah to Sukūn. Consider the following examples:

يَنْهَرُ

يُهْمِلُ

يَشْرَبُ

يَرْفُضُ

رَفْعٌ

Rafξ

Yanhar-u

Yuhmil-u

Yashrab-u

Yarfud-u

Transliteration

Scold

Neglect

Drink

Refuse

Translation

يَنْهَرَ

يُهْمِلَ

يَشْرَبَ

يَرْفُضَ

نَصْبٌ

Naŝb

Yanhar-a

Yuhmil-a

Yashrab-a

Yarfud-a

Transliteration

يَنْهَرْ

يُهْمِلْ

يَشْرَبْ

يَرْفُضْ

جزم

Ĵazm

Yanhar

Yuhmil

Yashrab

Yarfud

Transliteration

  • Now we will learn when the present verb's case-ending changes from a Đammah to Sukūn. Consider the following examples:

Translation

Transliteration

Example

I have not rejected help

Ana lam arfud il-musāξadata

أَنَا لَمْ أَرْفُضِ الْمُسَاعَدَةَ

Why do you not drink milk, Khalid

Limādha lam tashrab al-halība ya Khalidu

لِمَاذَا لَمْ تَشْرَبِ الحَلِيبَ يَا خَالِدُ

Do not neglect your lessons, Ibrahim

Ya Ibrahim la tuhmil durusaka

يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ لا تُهْمِلْ  دُرُوسَكَ

Do not speak harshly to your parents

Ya ghulamu la tanhar wālidaika

يَا غُلامُ لا تَنْهَرْ وَالِدَيْكَ

I have not studied Arabic

Lam adrus al-lughata al-arabiya

لَمْ أَدْرُسِ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ

  • From these examples we notice that there are two present verb Ĵazm particles: Negative lam "لَم" النَّافِيَةُ [which negates the action of the present verb in the past] and Prohibitive la "لا" النَّاهِيَةُ [which is specifically for the second person pronouns, and this is the difference between it and the Negative la "لا" النَّافِيَةِ which does not change the present verb case-ending]. These Ĵazm particles change the present verb case-ending from Đammah to Sukūn:
    1. The following are examples on Negative lam "لَم" النَّافِيَةِ, which negates the action of the present verb in the past and changes the present verb case-ending from Đammah ضَمَّةٍ (ـُـ) /-u/ to Sukūn سُكُونٍ (ـْـ) [the Sukūn means that no vowel appear on the case-ending of the word, i.e. it ends with a consonant].

Sentence in the negative with the ver preceded by ĵazm particle “lam”

Sentence in the affirmative

 

لَمْ يَدْرُسْ عَلِيٌّ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ فِي مِصْرَ

يَدْرُسُ عَلِيٌّ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ فِي مِصْرَ

Example

Lam yadrus Ali-un al-lughat-a al-arabiya-ta fi Misr-a

Yadrus-u Ali-un al-lughat-a al-arabiya-ta fi Misr-a

Transliteration

Ali has not studied Arabic in Egypt

Ali studies Arabic in Egypt

Translation

لََمْ يَكْتُبِ الطَّالِبُ وَاجِبَهُ فِي المَدْرَسَةِ

يَكْتُبُ الطَّالِبُ وَاجِبَهُ

Example

Lam yaktub al-tālib-u waĵibah-u

Yaktub-u al-tālib-u waĵibah-u

Transliteration

The student has not written his homework

The student wrote his homework

Translation

لَمْ يُشاهِدْ أَحْمَدُ التِّلْفازَ اليَوْمَ

يُشَاهِدُ أَحْمَدُ التِّلْفازَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ

Example

Lam yushāhid Ahmed-u al-telfaz-a al-yawm-a

Yushāhid-u Ahmed al-telfaz-a kulla yawm-in

Transliteration

Ahmed has not watched the television today

Ahmed watches the television every day

Translation

اِسْتَيْقِظْ

تَكَلَّمْ

اِسْمَعْ

اِشْرَبْ

اُكْتُبْ

Imperative

Istayqidh

Takallam

Ismaξ

Ishrab

Uktub

Transliteration

Wake up

Speak

Listen

Drink

Write

Translation

لا تَسْتَيْقِظْ

لا تَتَكَلَّمْ

لا تَسْمَعْ

لا تَشْرَبْ

لا تَكْتُبْ

Prohibitive

La tastayqidh

La tatakallam

La tasmaξ

La tashrab

La taktub

Transliteration

Do not wake up

Do not speak

Do not listen

Do not drink

Do not write

Translation

Translation

Transliteration

Example

Do not eat the street food, Said

La ta'kul taξam-a al-shāriξ-i yā Saξid

لا تَأكُلْ طَعَامَ الشَّارِعِ يَا سَعِيدُ

Do not sit in another place, Salem

La taĵlis illa fi makān-in ākhar-a yā Salem

لا تَجْلِسْ إِلا فِي مَكَانٍ آخَرَ يَا سَالِمُ

Do not stay up much lest your health becomes worse

La tashar kathīr-an hatta la tasū'-a sihhatuk-a

لا تَسْهَرْ كَثِيرًا حَتَى لا تَسُوْءَ صِحَّتُكَ

Do not neglect your duty

La tuhmil ξamalak-a

لا تُهْمِلْ عَمَلَكَ