Lesson 49الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ وَالأرْبَعُونَ

The Conditional Sentences - الْجُمَلُ الشَّرْطِيَّة

Conditional articles that turn the conditional verb into jussive - أدوات الشرط الجازمة

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  • In the previous parts we learnt the components of the Arabic conditional sentence: the conditional article, the conditional verb and the answer to the condition. We also learnt that the verb of the Arabic conditional sentence may be a present verb and sometimes may be past. This also applies to the verb of the answer to the condition. View the following four examples:


Conditional sentence

If people do their duties, the country (will) progresses and develops.

إنْ يَقُمِ النَّاسُ بِوَاجِبَاتِهِم، تتقَدَّمِ البَلدُ وتَتَطَوَّرْ.

He who visits Egypt (will) enjoys its fine weather.

مَنْ زارَ مِصْرَ، اِسْتَمْتَعَ بَجَوِّها الجَمِيلِ.

Who respects his professor will be respected by his friends.

مَنْ يَحْتَرِمْ أسْتاذَهُ، يَحْتَرِمْهُ أصْدِقَاؤُهُ.

  • From the examples above, we notice that the conditional verb may be a present verb in the ĵazm case with a sukūn vowel-ending, or an indeclinable past verb in a virtual ĵazm case. This is because the conditional article is a ĵazm one.
  • We will discuss this last point in this part. We will get to know the conditional ĵazm articles.
  • There are 21 conditional ĵazm articles, including three particle إنْ – إذْما - أمَّا. All the other articles are nouns, each of which has a meaning as in the following table:






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If you study your lessons, you (will) succeed.

إنْ تُذاكِرْ دُرُوسَكَ، تَنْجَحْ.



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Anyone who steals (shall) goes to prison.

مَنْ يَسْرِقْ، يدْخُلِ السِّجْنَ.

“Man” (any one) is used for animate, it means “anyone”


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Any money you spend on the poor, you will get more in return.

ما تُنْفِقْ مِنْ مالٍ للْفُقْراء، تُرْزَقْ بَأَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ.

“mā” (any …) is used for inanimate, it means “any (thing)”


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For any good deeds you do, you will be rewarded.

مَهْما تَفْعَلْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ، تَجِدْهُ.

“mahmā” (no matter what) is used for inanimate, it means “anything”


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Whenever you punish the student, he gets more violent.

مَتَى تُعاقِبِ التِّلْمِيذَ، يَكْثُرْ عُنْفُهُ.

“mattā” (whenever) indicates time. It means “at any time/ whenever”


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Whenever you feel pain, you visit the doctor.

أَيَّانِ تَشْعُرْ بِالألَم، تَذْهَبْ إلَى الطَّبِيبِ.


It indicates time. It means “at any time/whenever”


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Wherever Muhammad meets his teacher, he greets him.

أَيْنَما يَجِدْ مُحَمَّدٌ أُسْتَاذَهُ، يُسَلِّمْ عَلَيْهِ.

“Aynamā” (wherever) indicates place. It means “in any place/ wherever”


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Wherever Khalid travels, he goes shopping.

حَيْثُمَا يُسَافِرْ خَالِدٌ، يَتَسَوَّقْ.

“ħaythumā” (wherever) indicates place. It means “in any place/ wherever”


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Wherever you hear the call to prayers, you should pray.

أَنَّى تسْمَعِ الأذانَ، تُصَلِّ.

“annā” (wherever) indicates place. It also means “in any place”


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Anything that hurts you, you should be aware of.

أيُّ شَيْءٍ يُؤْذِكَ مَرَّةً، تَحْذَرْهُ.

“Ay” (any …) its meaning is determined in accordance with the noun annexed to it.