Lesson 73 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّالِثُ والسَّبْعونَ
The exclusion (1of3) - الاِسْـتِـثْـنَـاء (١مِن٣)
Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ
- This is lesson seventy three of our free Arabic language course. This Arabic course with images and audios will help you learn Arabic.
- In this lesson and the following two lessons we will cover the last accusative noun in the Arabic grammar, which is the excluded, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
- We will study the exclusion in three lessons as follows:
1- Lesson 73: introduction, the exclusion terminology, types of exclusion, and the exclusion article (إلا/illā/).
2- Lesson 74: the exclusion articles (غَيْر – سِوَى – خَلا – عَدَا - حاشا)
3- Lesson 75: the exclusion articles (لَيس - لا يكون – لاسِيَّما - بَيْدَ)
- In this lesson we will learn the meaning of the exclusion, which is “to exclude the noun placed after /illā/ (meaning except) or one of its sisters, from the rule of the words placed before”. E.g. when we say:
All the students attended except one student
حَضَرَ الطُّلابُ إِلَّا طالِبًا
/ħađara aŧ ŧullābu illā ŧâliban/
- This means that we exclude one student (which placed after the article /illā/) from the rule of the words before the article, i.e. from the attendance (placed before the article /illā/).
- We will also learn about the noun placed before the exclusion article, from which we subtract the excluded noun. This noun is called in Arabic (الْمُسْتَثْنى مِنْهُ/ al mustathnā minhu) meaning the included.
- The included (الْمُسْتَثْنى مِنْهُ) is mostly a definite noun, because we cannot exclude one or more items from unknown group. If the included noun is indefinite it has to be specified or well-known. Therefore it is mistaken to say (جَاءَ رِجَالٌ إِلَّا رَجُلاً) meaning (Men came except one), while the correct sentences are those which contain the included as definite noun, or as a specified indefinite noun, as in the following examples:
The included noun is definite by being annexed to a definite noun
The policemen came except one
حَضَرَ رِجالُ الشُّرْطَةِ إلا رَجُلاً
/ħađara riĵālu ash shurŧati illā raĵulan/
The indefinite included noun is specified by an adjective
Good people came except Khalid
حَضَرَ رِجالٌ صالِحُونَ إِلَّا خالِدًا
/ħađara riĵālun ŝâliħūna illā khâlidan/
The included noun is specified by its generality
Nobody came except for Said
/māĵā’a aħadun illā saξīdan/
- We will also learn in this lesson the components of the exclusion structure, its types and articles, and we will study the article /illā/ in detail, and the rules of the excluded noun after it, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).