Lesson 73 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّالِثُ والسَّبْعونَ

The exclusion (1of3) - الاِسْـتِـثْـنَـاء (١مِن٣)

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • This is lesson seventy three of our free Arabic language course. This Arabic course with images and audios will help you learn Arabic.
  • In this lesson and the following two lessons we will cover the last accusative noun in the Arabic grammar, which is the excluded, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • We will study the exclusion in three lessons as follows:

1-    Lesson 73: introduction, the exclusion terminology, types of exclusion, and the exclusion article (إلا/illā/).

2-    Lesson 74: the exclusion articles (غَيْرسِوَىخَلاعَدَا - حاشا)

3-    Lesson 75: the exclusion articles (لَيس - لا يكونلاسِيَّما - بَيْدَ)

  • In this lesson we will learn the meaning of the exclusion, which is “to exclude the noun placed after /illā/ (meaning except) or one of its sisters, from the rule of the words placed before”. E.g. when we say:

All the students attended except one student

حَضَرَ الطُّلابُ إِلَّا طالِبًا

/ħađara aŧ ŧullābu illā ŧâliban/

  • This means that we exclude one student (which placed after the article /illā/) from the rule of the words before the article, i.e. from the attendance (placed before the article /illā/).
  • We will also learn about the noun placed before the exclusion article, from which we subtract the excluded noun. This noun is called in Arabic (الْمُسْتَثْنى مِنْهُ/ al mustathnā minhu) meaning the included.
  • The included (الْمُسْتَثْنى مِنْهُ) is mostly a definite noun, because we cannot exclude one or more items from unknown group. If the included noun is indefinite it has to be specified or well-known. Therefore it is mistaken to say (جَاءَ رِجَالٌ إِلَّا رَجُلاً) meaning (Men came except one), while the correct sentences are those which contain the included as definite noun, or as a specified indefinite noun, as in the following examples:





The included noun is definite by being annexed to a definite noun

The policemen came except one

حَضَرَ رِجالُ الشُّرْطَةِ إلا رَجُلاً

/ħađara riĵālu ash shurŧati illā raĵulan/

The indefinite included noun is specified by an adjective

Good people came except Khalid

حَضَرَ رِجالٌ صالِحُونَ إِلَّا خالِدًا

/ħađara riĵālun ŝâliħūna illā khâlidan/

The included noun is specified by its generality

Nobody came except for Said

ما جاء أَحَدٌ إِلَّا سَعِيدًا

/māĵā’a aħadun illā saξīdan/

  • We will also learn in this lesson the components of the exclusion structure, its types and articles, and we will study the article /illā/ in detail, and the rules of the excluded noun after it, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).


From time to time we would like to contact you with updates for new Arabic lessons, videos, blog posts, quizzes from madinaharabic.com or other offers and updates from our madinaharabic.net Arabic Tuition Center. Please use the form below to subscribe to these updates. You wouldn't be subscribed until you confirm your subscription first by clicking a button in the subscription email we will send you.