Lesson 44 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِع وَالأرْبَعُونَ

Pronouns (1 of 5) – الضَّمَائرُ (١ من ٥)

The detached pronouns الضَّمير المُنْفَصِل

The accusative detached pronoun - ضَّمير النَّصْبِ المُنفَصِل

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  • We learnt earlier that the aim in the use of the Arabic pronouns is brevity, so the connected Arabic pronoun is more concise than the Arabic detached pronoun. It is preferred to say أَكْرَمْتُكَ (I honored you) rather than أَكْرَمْتُ إِيَّاكَ (I honored, it is you), as the first is more abbreviated.
  • We have to notice that the detached accusative pronoun should NOT come in place of nominative or genitive. It must occupy a place of accusative only.
  • The detached accusative pronoun is obligatorily used when it is not possible to use the attached pronoun. This happens in different situations as follows:
    • The first situation of specification, e.g. إيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ (it is you, we adore, and it is you, we ask help). The intention of placing the pronoun first in such case is to specify the meaning of the composition. That specification cannot be expressed by using the attached pronoun.
    • The second situation is when we need to put the accusative pronoun after certain particles that it is not allowed to attach the pronoun to, e.g. the particle Wa: شَفَاكُمُ اللهُ وَإِيَّانَا (God makes you healthy and us!). In this example we cannot put the attached accusative pronoun after the particle Wa.
  • We use the detached pronoun alternatively with attached accusative pronoun, when there is another attached pronoun connected to the same verb as a direct object, that make the pronunciation hard, e.g. أَعْطَيْتُكَ إيَّاهُ (I gave it to you) instead of أَعْطَيْتُكَهُ.
  • Now let’s see in the following table the full division of the detached pronouns in place of accusative:

 

Singularمُفْرَدٌ

Dualمُثَنَّى

Plural    جَمْعٌ

 

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

3rd. person غَائِبٌ

إِيَّاهُ

It is he

إِيَّاها

It is she

إِيَّاهُمَا

It is they

إِيَّاهُمْ

It is they

إِيَّاهُنَّ

It is they

2nd. Person

مُخَاطَبٌ

إِيَّاكَ

It is you

إِيَّاكِ

It is you

إِيَّاكُمَا

It is you

إِيَّاكُمْ

It is you

إِيَّاكُنَّ

It is you

1st. person

مُتَكَلِّمٌ

إِيَّايَ

It is I

إِيَّانَا

It is we

·       Now consider the following examples:

 

Picture

Analysis

Translation

Example

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Here we used the separate pronoun facultatively because it is easier in pronunciation than سأعطيكها

This bag, I’ll give it to you.

هَذِهِ الْحَقِيبَةُ سَأُعْطِيكَ إِيَّاهَا.

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Here the direct object pronoun precedes obligatorily the verb for rhetoric reason.

It is you, I mean by this word

إِيَّاكُمَا أَعْنِي بِهَذِهِ الْكَلِمَةِ

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Here the direct object pronoun is preceded by Wa.

The teacher awarded me and you

الْمُدَرِّسُ كَافَأَنِي وَإِيَّاكَ

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