Lesson 92 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّانِي وَالتِّسْعُونَ

Patterns of abstract verbs - أَوْزانُ الأفْعالِ المُجَرَّدَةِ

Pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu) of the abstract treble verb – وَزْنُ (فَعَلَ - يَفْعُلُ) من الْفِعْلِ الثُّلاثِيِّ الْمُجَرَّدِ

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  • The Arabic Pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu – فَعَلَ يَفْعُلُ) is one of the main patterns of the Arabic abstract treble verb.

1-    The sound verb الْفِعْلُ الصَّحِيحُ  of the pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu – فَعَلَ يَفْعُلُ):

  • We’ve learnt earlier that the sound verb means the regular verb that all letters of its root are consonants (not vowels) and without any duplication. Consider the following examples:

Past from

Present form

Meaning

Verb

Pattern

Verb

Pattern

حَضَرَ

FaƐala

يَحْضُرُ

YafƐulu

Attend

خَرَجَ

FaƐala

يَخْرُجُ

YafƐulu

Go out

دَخَلَ

FaƐala

يَدْخُلُ

YafƐulu

Enter

كَتَبَ

FaƐala

يَكْتُبُ

YafƐulu

Write

أَكَلَ

FaƐala

يَأْكُلُ

YafƐulu

Eat

نَظَرَ

FaƐala

يَنْظُرُ

YafƐulu

Look

2-    The hollow verb الفعل الأجوف of the pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu – فَعَلَ يَفْعُلُ):

  • The hollow verb الفعل الأجوف is a type of the weak verb الفعل المعتل. The weak verb is that which has a vowel letter among its root letters. In the hollow verb, the weak letter (i.e. the vowel) comes in the middle of the verb, e.g.: قال - يقول meaning to say.
  • In the patterns of the hollow verb, there is an important change in the present form (YafƐul يفعُل). As the hollow verb contain a vowel letter in the place of the (Ɛ - ع) letter of the morphological measure, and as it’s not allowed phonetically in Arabic to have the voice of (wu) in the present form, so the change of this pattern must be done. E.g.: the verb (قال meaning he said), the present form is (Yaqūl يقُول) instead of (Yaqwul).
  • We will study this phenomenon in detail in lesson 94 about defection and replacement.
  • It’s worth mentioning now that the morphological pattern doesn’t reflect this kind of change, i.e.: the pattern of the hollow verb (قال  - يقول) remains (FaƐala YafƐulu - فعَلَ يفْعُلُ). Consider the following examples:

Past verb

Pattern FaƐala فَعَلَ

Present verb

Pattern YafƐulu يفْعُلُ

Meaning

Pronounce notes

زارَ

يَزُورُ

Visit

Yazūr (not yazwur)

هانَ

يَهُونُ

Be easy

Yahūn (not yahwun)

دامَ

يَدُومُ

Last

Yadūm (not yadwum)

خانَ

يَخُونُ

Betray

Yakhūn (not yakhwun)

ماتَ

يَمُوتُ

Die

Yamūt (not yamwut)

فاتَ

يَفُوتُ

Exceed

Yafūt (not yafwut)

عادَ

يَعُودُ

Return

YaƐūd (not yaƐwud)

3-    The deficient verb الفعل الناقص of the pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu – فَعَلَ يَفْعُلُ):

  • The deficient verb is the weak verb which has the weak letter (the vowel) in the end of the root of the verb. The present patterns of the deficient verb are changed to be with long vowels instead of semi-consonants. In the pattern of (FaƐala YafƐulu), the weak letter should be (ū و). Consider the following examples:

Past verb

Pattern FaƐala

 فَعَلَ

Present verb

Pattern YafƐulu

 يفْعُلُ

Meaning

نَمَا

يَنْمُو

Grow

شَكَا

يَشْكُو

Complain

صَحَا

يَصْحُو

Wake up

خَلا

يَخْلُو

Be empty

4-    The double consonant verb الفِعْلُ الْمُضَعَّفُ of the pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu – فَعَلَ يَفْعُلُ):

  • There is a small morphological change in the present form of these verbs which contain double consonant.
  • The present form of this pattern is (YafƐulu يفْعُلُ), but in the double consonant case (يعدُّ He counts), we don’t say (YaƐdudu) as the pattern should be. We rather say (YaƐuddu يَعُدُّ).
  • The double consonant verb الفعل المضعف of the pattern (FaƐala YafƐulu) is always transitive verb. Consider the following examples:

Past verb

Pattern FaƐala

 فَعَلَ

Present verb

Pattern YafƐulu

 يفْعُلُ

Meaning

هَدَّ

يَهُدُّ

Destroy

عَدَّ

يَعُدُّ

Count

شَدَّ

يَشُدُّ

Pull

مَدَّ

يَمُدُّ

Extend

رَدَّ

يَرُدُّ

Reply

 





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