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Lesson 93 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّالِثُ وَالتِّسْعُونَ

Patterns and Meanings of Augmented Verbs - أَوْزانُ الأفْعالِ الْمَزيدَةِ وَمعانِيها

Patterns of the triple verb augmented with two letters (IftaƐalaInfaƐalaTafaƐƐalaTafāƐala IfƐalla) –مَعَانِي صِيَغِ الثُّلاثِيِّ الْمَزِيدِ بِحَرْفَيْنِ (اِفْتَعَلَ.اِنْفَعَلَ.تَفَعَّلَ.تَفاعَلَ.اِفْعَلَّ)

1-    Pattern IftaƐala اِفْتَعَلَ

  • This pattern is augmented with an intial Alif and medial Tā’. It gives the meaning of intransitivity, i.e. the meaning of the original verb (before the augmentation) is transitive, while the new meaning is intransitive. It means that the action has been done in the passive voice form (regardless the doer of the action), but it is passive in meaning and active in form.
  • Consider the following examples:

Example

Original verb

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

اِصْطَدَمَت السَّيَّارَتانِ.

The two cars have been crashed.

صَدَمَ

Crash

اِخْتَفَتِ الأوراقُ مِنَ الْمَكْتَبِ.

The documents have disappeared from the office.

خَفِيَ

To be hidden

اِحْتَرَقَتِ أَوْراقُ الْبَنْكِ.

The banknotes have been burned.

حَرَق

Burn

اِمْتَزَجَ اللَّبَنُ بِالْماءِ.

The milk has been missed with water.

مَزَجَ

Mix

2-    Pattern InfaƐala اِنْفَعَلَ:

  • This pattern is a triple verb augmented with initial Alif and Nūn. This is also gives the meaning of passive voice verb although it’s form is morphologically active voice.
  • The only difference between this pattern and the previous one is that the previous pattern could be transitive or intransitive verb, while this pattern is always intransitive.
  • Consider the following examples:

Example

Original verb

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

فَتَحْتُ البابَ فانْفَتَحَ.

I’ve opened the door, so it has been opened.

فَتَحَ

Open

سَقَطَ الكُوبُ عَلى الأرْضِ فانْكَسَرَ.

The glass fell on the ground and it has been broken.

كَسَرَ

Break

اِنْقَطَعَتِ الْكَهْرُباء.

The electricity has been cut off.

قَطَع

Cut

3-    Pattern TafaƐƐala تَفَعَّلَ:

This pattern is a triple verb augmented with two letters: the intial Tā’ and the doubled medial consonant.

It may mean two things:

·         The exaggeration or increment

·         The intransitivity.

The exaggeration or increment may appear in a verb like تخرَّج meaning graduate from the original خَرَجَ meaning exit. Consider the following examples:

·         The second meaning is the intransitivity. In this meaning also, we find the meaning of the passive voice although the form is morphologically active voice. Consider the following examples:

Example

Original verb

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

تَنَظَّفَ الْمَكْتَبُ.

The office has been cleaned.

نَظَفَ

Clean

تَقَطَّعَ الْحَبْلُ.

The rope has been cut.

قَطَعَ

Cut

تَدَمَّرَ الْمَوْقِعُ.

The site has been destroyed.

دَمَرَ

Destroy

تَبَخَّرَ الْماءُ.

The water has been vaporized.

بَخَرَ

Vaporize

4-    Pattern TafāƐala تَفاعَلَ:

  • This pattern of triple verb is augmented with an initial Tā’ and medial Alif. It may indicate two meanings:
  • The reciprocity: Consider the following examples:

Example

Original verb

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

تَسابقَ الأَخَوانِ وفازَ أكْبَرُهُم.

The two brothers raced and the elder one won.

سَبَقَ

Race

تَقاسَمَ اللُّصُوصُ السَّرِقَةَ.

The thieves shared the stolen objects.

قَسَمَ

Divide

تَبادَلَ الْمُلاكِمانِ الضَّرَباتِ.

The two boxers punched each other.

بَدَلَ

reciprocate

  • The intransitivity: As we learned earlier, the intransitivity may give the meaning of passive voice.
  • Consider the following examples:

Example

Original verb

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

تَبَاعَدَ المُتَظَاهِرونَ عَنِ الْمَوْقِعِ.

The rebels went far from the site.

بعُدَ

Go far

تَعَايَشَتِ الأَدْيانُ.

The religions coexisted.

عاشَ

Live

تَشَاجَرَ الزَّوجَانِ.

The two spouses quarreled.

شَجَر

Fight

5-    Pattern IfƐalla اِفْعَلَّ:

  • This pattern is one of the triple verbs augmented with an initial Alif with the doubling of the final consonant.
  • It may have the meaning of consequence or transformation. This pattern comes only with intransitive meaning.
  • Consider the following examples:

Example

Original verb

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

اِصْفَرَّتِ الأَشْجَارُ فِي الْخَرِيفِ.

The trees became yellow in winter.

صَفِرَ

Become yellow

ثُمَّ اِخْضَرَّتْ فِي الرَّبيعِ.

Then, it became green in spring.

خَضِرَ

Become green

وَاحْمَرَّتْ الزُّهُورُ اِحْمِرارًا شَدِيدًا.

Flowers became extremely red.

حَمِرَ

Become red

اِعْوَرَّ الْمُلاكِمُ بَعْدَ الْمُباراةِ.

After the match, the boxer became one-eyed.

عَوِرَ

Become one-eyed

 

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