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Lesson 93 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّالِثُ وَالتِّسْعُونَ

Patterns and Meanings of Augmented Verbs - أَوْزانُ الأفْعالِ الْمَزيدَةِ وَمعانِيها

Patterns of the triple verb augmented with one letter (AfƐala FaƐƐala FāƐala) – صِيَغُ الثُّلاثِيّ الْمَزِيدِ بِحَرْفٍ وَاحِدٍ (أَفْعَلَ - فَعَّلَ - فاعَلَ)

1-    Pattern AfƐala أفعَلَ:

  • This pattern consists of four root letters; three of them are original letters, while the fourth (i.e. the initial Alif) is augmented.
  • The table below shows the different meanings that could be indicated by this pattern:

Meaning

Example

Meaning

The transitivity: i.e. the intransitive verb becomes transitive when we add the initial Hamza to it. E.g. “خرج” meaning went out, while “أخرج” meaning get somebody or something out.

أَخْرَجَ خالِدٌ الكِتابَ.

Khalid took the book out (extracted).

أَدْخَلَ الطَّالِبُ الْقَلَمَ.

The student put the pen inside (his pocket).

أَفْسَدَ الْمُهَنْدِسُ الْحاسُوبَ.

The engineer has broken the computer.

أَحْضَرَ الْمُعَلِّمُ حَقِيبَتَهُ.

The teacher brought his bag.

The transformation (becoming): i.e. when we add an initial Hamzah to a noun, this may meaning (to transform or to turn into this noun). E.g. the noun “شَرْق” meaning east, when we say “أشْرقَت الشَّمس” this means that the sun rose (become in the east.

أَشْرَقَتِ الشَّمْسُ.

The sun rose.

أَوْرَقَتِ الأَشْجارُ.

The trees sprouted leaves.

أَحْرَمَ الْحُجَّاجُ مِنْ جِدَّة.

The pilgrims consecrated from Jeddah.

أَزْهَرَتِ الْورودُ.

The roses sprouted flowers.

2-    Pattern FaƐala فاعل:

  • There are two meanings that this pattern indicates:

o    The reciprocity: Making the action of the root verb towards each other.

o    The increment of the action of the root verb.

Please, see examples below:

Meaning

Example

Translation

The reciprocity: Making the action of the root verb towards each other

خاصَمَ خالِدٌ طارِقًا.

Khalid and Tariq are at odds with each other.

قابَلَ الْمُديرُ الْمُوظَّفِينَ.

The manager met the employees.

هاجَمَ الْفرِيقُ ففازَ بالْمُباراةِ.

The team attacked, so they won the match.

The increment of the meaning of the action of the root verb

لاطفَ الأُستاذُ التلاميذَ.

The teacher treated kindly with the pupils. (He was very kind with them).

راحَمَ الأبُ أَبْناءَهُ.

The father treated his sons very mercifully. (He was very merciful with them.).

3-    Pattern FaƐƐala فَعَّل:

  • There are two meanings that the verb in this pattern acquires:

o    The transitivity: I.e. the verb on this pattern is the transitive form of the root verb. It needs a direct object. E.g.: the verb before augmentation حضَر means to attend (himself), while the augmented form on this pattern حضَّرَ means to make somebody attend. N.B. If the original verb is transitive, then this pattern makes it transitive to two objects, e.g. the verb درَسَ means to study something, while دَرَّسَ means to make somebody study something (teach).

o    The exaggeration of the meaning of the original verb: E.g. the verb كرَّم means to exaggerate in being generous with somebody.

Please, consider the following examples:

Meaning

Example

Translation

The transitivity

هَرَّبَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ الْمُخَدِّراتِ.

The criminals smuggled drugs.

(They made them escapeهرَبَ).

خَبَّأَ الْمُجْرِمُ الْمَسْرُوقاتِ.

The criminals hide the stolen objects.

عَلَّمَ الأَبُ اِبْنَهُ الْقِراءَةَ.

The father taught his son reading. (He made him know).

The exaggeration or the repetition of the meaning

كَرَّمَتِ الْمَدْرَسَةُ الْمُتَفَوِّقِينَ.

The school honored the excellent.

عَزَّزَ الْجَيشُ قُوَّاتِهِ.

The army reinforced his forces.

هَدَّمَ الْعَدُوُّ الْمَنَازِلَ.

The enemy destroyed houses.

 

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