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Lesson 91 – الدَّرْسُ الحَادِي وَالتِّسْعُونَ

The Morphologic Measurement - الْمِيزانُ الصَّرْفِيُّ

The patterns of the four letters root verb –أَوْزَانُ الْفِعْلِ الرُّبَاعِيِّ

  • The four letters root verb is the verb whose original letters are four regardless any augmentations. Actually, there are two types of the four letters root verb, as follows:
  • The four letters abstract verb: It comes without any augmented letters to its root, e.g. بَـعْـثَـرَ (meaning He rummaged): all the four letters in this verb are original. Therefore, we look it up in the dictionary by the order of the four letters. The pattern of that verb is formed by adding an additional Laam to the word (FaƐala فَعَلَ) to be (FaƐlala فَعْلَلَ). Please, consider the following examples:

Pattern (FaƐlala فَعْلَلَ) of the abstracted four letters root verb

Verb

Meaning of verb

Example

Meaning of example

زَلْـزَلَ

Shake

زَلْزَلَنِي خَبَرُ مَقْتَلِ الرَّئِيسِ.

The death of the president shocked (shook) me strongly

وَسْـوَسَ

Seduce

وَسْوَسَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ لِزَوْجِها.

The woman seduced her husband (e.g. to do illegal action)

بَـعْـثَـرَ

Rummage

بَعْثَرَ الطِّفْلُ أَوْراقَ أَبِيهِ.

The child rummaged his fathers’ papers.

زَخْـرَفَ

Decorate

زَخْرَفَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ بُيُوتَهُم.

The ancient Muslims decorated their houses.

عَـرْبَـدَ

Revel

عَرْبَدَ الْوَلَدُ بَعْدَ طَرْدِهِ مِنَ الْمَنْزِلِ.

The kid reveled after getting out of home.

حَصْحَصَ

come to light

قالَتِ الآنَ حَصْحَصَ الحَقُّ.

“Now that the truth has come to light” she said.

·         It’s worth mentioning here that this pattern is possibly related also to nouns, as the following examples:

Noun

Meaning

Example

Meaning of example

جَعْفَر

A name of a man

عادَ جَعْفَرُ إلى بَلَدِهِ.

Gaafar came back to his homeland.

عَقْرَب

Scorpion

اِحْتَرِسْ مِنْ الْعَقْرَبِ الأَصْفَرِ.

Take care from the yellow scorpion

بُرْعُم

Bud

هَذا الْبُرْعُمُ مُناسِبٌ لِلزِّراعَةِ هُنا.

That bud is not convenient for cultivation.

خَنْدَق

Trench

يَجِبُ أَنْ نَحْفُرَ خَنْدَقًا حَوْلَ الْخَيْمَة.

We have to dig a trench around the tent.

  • N.B.: These nouns also can be transformed to verbs with the meaning of the action related to the same each noun, e.g.: we can say “خَنْدَقَ الرَّجُلُ” meaning that the man has made a trench.
  • Now, let’s go to study the augmented forms of the four letters root verb. We will show you just two forms in the following table:

Verb

Meaning

Pattern

Sentence

Meaning

تَدَحْرَجَ

Roll over

تَفَعْلَل

تَدَحْرَجَتْ الْكُرَةُ.

The ball has rolled over.

تَبَعْثَرَ

Scatter

تَفَعْلَل

تَبَعْثَرَتْ حَبَّاتُ الْعِقْدِ.

The beads of the necklace scattered.

تَحَصْحَصَ

Appear – come to light

تَفَعْلَل

تَحَصْحَصَ الْحَق.

The right has come to light.

تَزَلْزَلَ

Being shaken

تَفَعْلَل

تَزَلْزَلَتْ الأرْضُ تَحْتَهُ.

The ground has been shaken underneath him.

تَخَصْخَصَ

Being specialized

تَفَعْلَل

تَخَصْخَصَتِ الشَّرِكاتُ.

The companies are specialized.

اِقْشَعَرَّ

Shudder

اِفْعَلَـلَّ

اِقْشَعَرَّتْ الأَبْدَانُ

The bodies shuddered.

اِطْمَأَنَّ

Rest assured

اِفْعَلَـلَّ

اِطْمِأَنَّ قَلْبِي.

My heart has rested assured.

اِشْمَأَزَّ

Disgust

اِفْعَلَـلَّ

اِشْمَأَزَّ أَبِي مِنْ هَذا الأَمْرِ.

My father disgusted this matter.

  • As you may notice, the augmented four letters root verb comes in two forms:

 

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