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Lesson 91 – الدَّرْسُ الحَادِي وَالتِّسْعُونَ

The Morphologic Measurement - الْمِيزانُ الصَّرْفِيُّ

Patterns of the three letters root verb – أَوْزَانُ الفِعْلِ الثُّلَاثِيّ

  • We learnt in the introduction of this lesson, that the Arabic morphologists use the three letters (فعل FaƐala) to determine the patterns of all Arabic words. If we morphologically study the verb (كَتَبَ He wrote), we have to know that the letter (ك) represents the (ف fa) of the measure, the letter (ت) represents the (عƐa), and the letter (ب) represents the (ل la) as shown below:
  • Therefore, any change in the word (كتب) must be represented with a similar change in the morphological measurement, as it’s shown below (please, read the Arabic words from right to left):

Word

خَـرَجَ Went out

Word

دَخَـلَ Entered

Letters

جَ

ـرَ

خَـ

Letters

ـلَ

خَـ

دَ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعَـ

فَـ

Pattern

ـلَ

عَـ

فَ

Word

فَـهِـمَ Understand

Word

شَـرِبَ Drank

Letters

ـمَ

ـهِـ

فَـ

Letters

بَ

ـرِ

شَـ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعِـ

فَـ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعِ

فَـ

Word

سَـأَلَ Asked

Word

وَعَـد Promised

Letters

لَ

ـأَ

سَـ

Letters

ـدَ

عَـ

وَ

Pattern

لَ

ـعَ

فَـ

Pattern

لَ

ـعَ

فَـ

Word

كَـمُـلَ Completed

Word

عَـظُـمَ Was great

Letters

ـلَ

ـمُـ

كَـ

Letters

ـمَ

ـظُـ

عَـ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعُـ

فَـ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعُـ

فَـ

Word

كُـسِـرَ Was broken

Word

صُـعِـقَ Was shocked

Letters

ـرَ

ـسِـ

كُـ

Letters

ـقَ

ـعِـ

صُـ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعِـ

فُـ

Pattern

ـلَ

ـعِـ

فُـ

  • The above mentioned table shows how we weigh each verb and put it on the correct pattern with the help of the morphological measurement. The above mentioned examples are all belong to the “abstract” type of verbs. However, there are some verbs consist of more than three letters, although their root consists only of three letters. These verbs are considered “augmented” in Arabic morphology. These verbs could be augmented with one, two, or three letters as follows:

1-            The three letters root verb augmented with one letter. This type of verbs comes in various patterns as follows:

(1)

Verbs of pattern

AfƐala أفْعَل

(2)

Verbs of pattern

FaaƐala فاعَل

(3)

Verbs of pattern

FaƐƐala فعَّل

Arabic verb

English meaning

Arabic verb

English meaning

Arabic verb

English meaning

أَكْرَمَ

Be generous with

قَاتَلَ

Fight

دَرَّسَ

Teach

أَسْكَنَ

Provide accommodation

شارَكَ

Participate

عَـلَّـمَ

Teach

أَحْضَرَ

Bring

نافَسَ

Compete

فَـهَّـمَ

Make smbdy understand

أَسْرَفَ

Excess

سابَقَ

Race

شَـجَّـعَ

Encourage

أَقْبَلَ

Come

عَانَقَ

Embrace

سَـجَّـلَ

Record

أَخْرَجَ

Get smbdy out

جَاهَدَ

Struggle

حَـقَّـقَ

Realize

2-            The three letters root verb augmented with two letters. This type of verbs comes in various patterns as follows:

(1)

Verbs of pattern

InfaƐala انْفَعَل

(2)

Verbs of pattern

IftaƐala افْتَعَل

(3)

Verbs of pattern

TafaaƐala تَفَاعَل

(4)

Verbs of pattern

TafaƐƐala تَفَعَّلَ

(5)

Verbs of pattern

IfƐalla اِفْعَلَّ

Verb

Meaning

Verb

Meaning

Verb

Meaning

Verb

Meaning

Verb

Meaning

اِنْكَسَرَ

Be broken

اِقْتَرَبَ

Come near

تَجَاذَبَ

Attract each other

تَقَدَّمَ

Progress

اِحْمَرَّ

Become red

اِنْفَجَرَ

Burst

اِتَّـصَلَ

Communicate

تَشَاجَرَ

Quarrel

تَعَلَّمَ

Learn

اِخْضَرَّ

Become green

اِنْشَقَّ

Split asunder

اِبْتَعَدَ

Go far

تَناثَرَ

Spatter

تَكَبَّرَ

Feel proud badly

اِسْوَدَّ

Become black

اِنْحَازَ

Bias

اِكْتَسَبَ

Gain

تَجاهَلَ

Ignore

تَشَجَّعَ

Be incouraged

اِبْيَضَّ

Become white

3-            The three letters root verb augmented with three letters. This type of verbs comes in various patterns. One of these patterns is the famous one below:

 

 

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