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Lesson 90 – الدَّرْسُ التِّسْعُونَ

Introduction to Morphology - مُقَدِّمةٌ لِعِلْمِ الصَّرْفِ

How does Morphology study derivatives? –كيف يَدْرُسُ عِلْمُ الصَّرْفِ المُشْتَقَّاتِ؟

  • In the introduction of this lesson, we learnt that Morphology studies the forms of words regardless their positions in the structure.
  • These forms will be studied in detail in the following lessons In-Shaa’-Allaah (God Willing).
  • Each form of Arabic words belongs to a certain root (mostly consisting of three letters). We have to be capable to know the original letters of any word and differentiate them from the augmented letters.
  • When we look up an Arabic word in the Arabic dictionaries, our search will not be based on the order of the letters; rather it will be based on the order of the letters of the root, i.e. after removing the augmented letters.
  • For example, when we search for the word (key المِفْتَاح), we have to remove all augmented letters and look for the root (فَتَحَ).
  • In the Arabic dictionary, we will find all the following derivatives under the root (فَتَحَ):

Picture

Word

Pattern

Example

Arabic

English

Arabic

English

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

فَتَحَ

Open (verb)

فَعَلَ

فَتَحْتُ الكِتابَ ثُمَّ أَغْلَقْتُهُ.

I opened the book and then I closed it.

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

فاتَحَ

approach

فاعَلَ

فاتَحَ الأبُ اِبْنَهُ فِي مَسْأَلَةِ زَواجِهِ.

The father approached his son the matter of marriage.

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اِفْتَتَحَ

 

Inaugurate

اِفْتَعَلَ

اِفْتَتَحَ الرَّسامُ مَعْرِضَهُ الْجَدِيدَ.

The painter inaugurated his new gallery.

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تَفَتَّحَ

 

Bloom

تَفَعَّلَ

تَتَفَتَّحُ الزُّهُورُ فِي فَصْلِ الرَّبِيعِ.

Flowers bloom in spring.

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

الْفُتْحَة

 

Hole

الفُعْلَة

سَقَطَت الْكُرَةُ فِي الْفُتْحَةِ.

The ball fell into the hole.

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مِفْتَاحًا

Key

مِفْعالا

سأَصْنَعُ مِفتَاحًا جَدِيدًا للشقةِ.

I’ll make a new flat for the apartment.

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فاتِحُ

conqueror

فاعِل

هَذا هُو فاتِحُ الأَنْدَلُسِ.

This man is the conqueror of Andalusia.

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مَفْتُوح

Open (noun)

مَفْعُول

البابُ مَفْتوحٌ أَمامِي.

The door is open in front of me.

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الْمُتَفَتِّح

Open-minded

المُتَفَعِّل

هَؤلاءِ هُم شبابُ الْقَرْيَةِ الْمُتَفَتِّحُون.

These are the open-minded young men in the village.

Forming the doer noun

Pattern

Root

Doer

Arabic

English meaning

From the three letters roots

فاعِل Ɛil

خَرَجَ He exited

خارِج

The one who exits.

فاعِل Ɛil

دَخَلَ He enterer

داخِل

The one who enters.

From the four letters roots

مُفْعِل MufƐil

أَخْرَجَ He made somebody exit

مُخْرِج

The one who makes somebody exit.

مُفاعِل MufāƐil

شارَكَ He participated

مُشارِك

Participant

مُفَعِّلْ MuffaƐƐil

أَذَّنَ He called for prayer

مُؤَذِّن

The one who calls for prayer.

·         We will learn more patterns in of the doer noun in detail in lesson 98.

 

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