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Lesson 65 – الدَّرْسُ الْخَامِسُ و السِّتُّونَ نَـائِــب الفَاعِــل

The rules of the pro agent – أَحكام نائب الفاعل

  • The pro agent is the main essential part in the passive voice sentence, like the doer in the active voice sentence.
  • The pro agent has all the rules of the doer in its sentence. We studied the rules of the doer in the previous lesson (64). We will study in this part the rules of the pro agent In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing):
  • The pro agent is always in the nominative case:
    If the pro agent is a singular regular noun, it will be signed with the /đammah/ on its last letter, because the /đammah/ is the main sign for the nominative case. Look at the following example:

كُتِبَ الدَّرْسُ

The lesson was written

  • If the pro agent is a sound masculine plural, it will be signed with /wāw/ in its penultimate letter. The /wāw/ is the sign of the nominative case of the sound masculine plural, as follows:
  • If the pro agent is a dual noun, it will be signed with the /alif/ as a penultimate letter. The /alif/ is the nominative sign for the dual noun, as the following example:

طُرِدَ العامِلانِ مِنَ المَصْنَعِ

The two workers were driven out of the factory

  • If the pro agent is an attached pronoun, it will be indeclinable in place of nominative. We learnt in lesson (44) that the pronoun is always indeclinable, and if it occupies the position of the doer or the pro agent it will be in place of nominative, as the following example:
  • We now clearly understand that the pro agent is always in the nominative case.
  • We also find out in the above mentioned examples that the other rules of the doer that we studied earlier in the previous lesson are the same rules of the pro agent. The other rules are the following:
    1-The pro agent falls after the verb, not before it.
    2-The verb before the pro agent is originally in a singular form, it is not affected by the number (dual or plural) of the pro agent.
    Originally, the pro agent falls directly after the verb, with some exceptions in which it is separated from the verb. (The exceptions are the same as we studied in the previous lesson).
  • Hereunder are some examples that show the rules of the pro agent: