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Lesson 65 – الدَّرْسُ الْخَامِسُ و السِّتُّونَ نَـائِــب الفَاعِــل

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In the previous lesson we studied the doer (the agent of the verb). We learnt that it is the part of the verbal sentence which does the action of the verb, e.g. (جَاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ), or which is characterized by the verb, e.g. (مَاتَ عَلِيٌّ). The agent (the doer) in the first sentence is (مُحَمَّدٌ) who did the action of the verb, while the doer in the second sentence (عَلِيٌّ) is characterized (qualified) by the verb, because the action of dying cannot be done by a man. In this lesson we will learn the pro agent In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • The pro agent is the regular noun which replaces the doer when the verb is in the passive form. So the pro agent is the essential part of the verbal sentence which does the action of the preceding passive verb, or it is characterized by such verb.
  • We studied in lesson 34, the passive form of the present and the past verb, and in this lesson we will study the pro agent, which is the second indispensable part of the verbal passive sentence.
  • In this lesson we will learn the following In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing):

    1-The meaning of the pro agent, its sentence, and why the sentence usually becomes in passive voice. We will learn that there are many reasons of the passive voice, as the following:

Picture

Explanation

Example

Reason

English

Arabic

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It is well known that the mother is the doer (who gives birth)

Omar is born on Monday

وُلِدَ عُمَرُ يَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ

/wulida ξumaru yawma al ithnayni/

The notoriety of the agent

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This is when we do not know the thief

The treasury is stolen

سُرِقَتِ الخَزِينَةُ

/suriqat al khazīnatu/

The ignorance of the doer

  • 2-the rules of the pro agent.
  • These rules are very similar to the rules of the agent (the doer) which we learnt in lesson 64.
  • From these rules (for example) the pro agent is always in the nominative case, not separated from the verb, as in the following examples:

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The pro agent

Example

English

Arabic

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هَدَفٌ

A beautiful goal was scored

سُجِّلَ هَدَفٌ جَمِيلٌ

/suĵĵila hadafun ĵamīlun/

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الطَّعامُ

The food was eaten with the spoon

أُكِلَ الطَّعامُ بالمِلْعَقَةِ

/ukila aŧ ŧaξāmu bilmilξaqati/

  • The types of the pro agent:

The pro agent has many types as in the following examples:

 

picture

The ex position of the pro agent

The pro agent

Example

English meaning

Passive voice

Active voice

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Object

طُلابُهُ

Their student were gathered

جُمِعَ طُلابُهُ

 

/ĵumiξa ŧullābuhu/

جَمَعَ الأُسْتَاذُ طُلابَهُ

/ĵamaξa al ustādhu ŧullābahu/

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Prepositional phrase

عَلَى الكُرْسِيِّ

It was sat on the chair

جُلِسَ عَلَى الكُرْسِيِّ

/ĵulisa ξalā al kursiyyi/

جَلَسَ مُحَمَّدٌ عَلَى الكُرْسِيِّ

/ĵalasa muħammadun ξalā al kursiyyi/

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An adverb

لَيْلَةُ الجُمُعَةِ

The night of Friday was stayed up

سُهِرْتْ لَيْلَةُ الجُمُعَةِ

Suhirat laylatu al ĵumξati/

سَهِرْتُ لَيْلَةَ الجُمُعَةِ

/sahirtu laylata al ĵumξati/