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Lesson 65 – الدَّرْسُ الْخَامِسُ و السِّتُّونَ نَـائِــب الفَاعِــل

The pro agent – نَائِبُ الفاعل

  • We studied earlier the nominal sentence. We learnt that it consists of two essential parts; the verb (الفعل) and the doer (الفاعل). The doer is originally preceded by a verb in the active form, e.g.:

The doer in this sentence is (محمدٌ) because the verb is in the active form.

  • The verb can be in the passive form, e.g.:

كُتِبَ الدَّرْسُ

The lesson was written

The agent (the doer) is omitted from this sentence, and the object of the active voice sentence (الدَّرْسَ) falls in the place of the agent and is called here the pro agent, and it becomes in the nominative case (الدَّرْسُ).

  • We learnt in the previous lesson that the agent is that which does the action of the verb, or is characterized by it.
  • We can define the pro agent by the same way (which does the action of the passive verb, or is characterized by it).
  • The pro agent is called in Arabic (نائب الفاعل) which literally means the representative (or the deputy) of the doer, this is because it replaces the doer and it has all its rules and characteristics.
  • Consider the following examples:

Picture

The pro agent

The passive verb

Example

English

Arabic

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الإنْسَانُ

خُلِقَ

The mankind was created weak

خُلِقَ الإنْسَانُ ضَعِيفًا

/khuliqa al insānu đaξīfan/

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عُمَرُ

وُلِدَ

Omar was born on Monday

وُلِدَ عُمَرُ يَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ

/wulida ξumaru yawma al ithnayni/

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الخَزِينَةُ

سُرِقَتِ

The treasury was stolen

سُرِقَتِ الخَزِينَةُ

/suriqat al lkhazīnatu/

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المِرْآةُ

كُسِرَتِ

The mirror was broken

كُسِرَتِ المِرْآةُ

/kusirat al mir’ātu/

  • From the above mentioned examples we notice that the doer is omitted, and it is replaced with the pro agent, because the verb is in the passive form.
  • Now we will study the reason for which the verb is usually changed into passive voice and the doer is omitted. See the following examples with the explanation:

Explanation

Reason of omitting the doer

Example

English

Arabic

It is well known that any one is born by his mother, so there is no need to mention the doer

The notoriety of the doer

Omar was born on Monday

وُلِدَ عُمَرُ يَوْمَ الاِثْنَيْنِ

/wulida ξumaru yawma alithnayni/

The treasury is stolen and the speaker does not know thief or do not like to mention it

The ignorance of the doer

The treasury was stolen

سُرِقَتِ الخَزِينَةُ

/suriqat al khazīnatu/

The speaker does not know who broke the mirror or does not like to mention it

The ignorance of the doer

The mirror was broken

كُسِرَتِ المِرْآةُ

/kusirat al mir’ātu/