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Lesson 54 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِعُ وَالْخَمْسُونَ

Sound Feminine Plural -  جَمْعُ المُؤَنَّث السَّالِم

words Which have a sound feminine plural formالكَلِمَاتُ الَّتِي تُجْمَعُ جَمْعَ مُؤَنَّثٍ سَالِمٍ

·         In this part, we will learn that types of words that have a sound feminine plural form. It is not true that only the words ending with  " ة " can have a sound feminine plural. There are several types that can have a sound feminine plural. These types have something in

صِناعةٌ

/ŝināξatun/

سَبُّورَةٌ

/Subburatun/

شَرِكَةٌ

/sharikatun/

Singular

Industry

blackboard

Company

Translation (if applicable)

صِناعاتٌ

/ŝināξātun/

سَبُورَاتٌ

/Sabburâtun/

شَرِكَاتٌ

/sharikātun/

Plural

اسم شيء غير عاقل

Name of inanimate thing

اسم شيء غير عاقل

Name of inanimate thing

 

اسم شيء غير عاقل

Name of inanimate thing

Type

 

جَمِيلَةٌ

/ĵamīlatun/

حَمْزَةُ

/ħamzatu/

 

عَائِشَةُ

/ξā’ishatu/

Singular

beautiful

---

---

Translation (if applicable)

جَمِيلَاتٌ

/ĵamīlātun/

حَمْزَواتٌ

/ħamzawātun/

 

عَائِشاتٌ

/ξa’ishātun/

Plural

صفة

Adjective

اسم رجل

Proper noun of a male

اسم بنت

Proper noun of a female

Type

 

·         common; they indicate feminine either in terms of the case-ending or the meaning. We will explain these types in detail in this section.
1-
A singular word ending with " ة "Study the following examples:
2-
Any noun ending with " ة " can be made sound feminine plural and indicates a feminine animate such as (عائشَة) or a masculine animate such as حَمْزَة; or indicates inanimate thing such as: صِناعةٌ, سُبوُّرَةٌ, شَرِكَةٌ; or refers to an adjective such as: طَوِيلَةٌ, كَبِيرَةٌ, جَمِيلَةٌ.

·         NB: There is an important remark that has to do with lesson 33 on the broken plural. There are many Arabic words that we express more with the Broken Plural than the sound feminine plural. Study the following examples of words ending with " ة " and have both a broken plural as well as a sound feminine plural.

مَدِينَةٌ

/madīnatun/

قَرْيَةٌ

/qaryatun/

حَقِيبَةٌ

/ħaqībatun/

Singular

Town

Village

Bag

Translation

مَدِينَاتٌ

/madīnātun/

قَرْيَاتُ

/qaryātun/

حَقِيبَاتٌ

/ħaqibātun/

Sound feminine plural

مُدُنٌ

/mudunun/

قُرَىً

/quran/

حَقائِبُ

/ħaqâ’ibu/

Broken plural



جَنَّةٌ

/ĵannatun/

حَدِيقَةٌ

/ħadīqatun/

مَدْرَسَةٌ

/madrasatun/

Singular

Paradise

Garden

School

Translation

جَنَّاتٌ

/ĵannātun/

حَدِيقاتٌ

/ħadiqâtun/

مَدْرَساتٌ

/madrasātun/

Sound feminine plural

جِنانٌ

/ĵinānun/

 

حَدائِقُ

/ħadā’iqu/

مَدارِسُ

/madārisu/

Broken plural

·         This way, a word can have more than one plural form, but one of them is usually used more frequently than the other. In Arabic, the broken plural is most frequently used if applicable. For example, the sound feminine plural of the word مَدْرَسَةٌ is مَدْرساتٌ while its broken plural is مَدَارِسُ. The latter is most frequently used, and this applies to other words.

·         Female proper names that do not end with " ة ", as in the
following words:

حَنَانُ

/ħanānu/

هِنْدُ

/Hindu/

سُعادُ

/Suξādu/

زَيْنَبُ

/Zaynabu/

Singular

حَنَاناتٌ

/ħananātun/

هِنْداتٌ

/Hindātun/

سُعاداتٌ

/Suξādātun/

زَيْنَباتٌ

/Zaynabātun/

Plural

·         All the above mentioned nouns are real feminine proper nouns, as we cannot find a man called “Zaynab” or “Hind”. For this reason, all these nouns have sound feminine plural through adding the "-ات" suffix to the singular form as shown in the table above.
1-
The words ending with the long feminine alif "اء " or the feminine alif maqŝuura " ـَى"  . Study the following examples:

Picture

Sentence with the plural

Translation

Sentence with the singular

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

العَذْراواتُ هُنَّ اللائِي لم يُنْكَحْنَ بَعْدُ

/al-ξadhrâwātu hunna al-lā’ī lam yunkaħna baξdu/

The virgin is the one who has never had sex.

العَذْراء هِي التي لم تُنْكَحْ بَعْدُ

/al-ξadhrâ’u hiya al-latī lam tunkaħ baξdu/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

خَلَقَ الله السَّماواتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ

/khalaqa Allâhu as-samāwāti bi-ghayri amadin/

Allah (God) created the heavens without any pillars.

خَلَقَ الله السَّماءَ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ

/khalaqa Allāhu as-samā’a bi-ghayri amadin/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

يُفَضِّلُ الشَّبابُ الزَّوَاجَ بالبِنْاتِ الشَّقْرَاواتِ

/yufađđilu ash-shabābu az-zawāĵa bil-banāti ash-shaqrâwāti/

Youth prefer to marry blonde girls.

يُفَضِّلُ الشَّبابُ الزَّوَاجَ بالبِنْتِ الشقراءِ

/yufađđilu ash-shabābu az-zawāĵa bil-binti ash-shaqrâ’i/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

البَنَاتُ الكُبْرَيَات يَعْرِفْنَ أَكْثَر مِن البَنَاتِ الصُّغْرَيات .

/al-banātu al-kubrayātu yaξrifna akthara min al-banāti al-ŝughrayāti/

The elder girl knows more than the younger one.

البِنْتُ الكُبْرَى تَعْرِفُ أَكْثَر مِن البنتِ الصُّغْرَى

/al-bintu al-kubrā taξrifu akthar min al-binti al-ŝughrâ/

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

يَجِبُ على النِّسَاءِ الحُبْلَيَات أن يَسْتَرِحْنَ

/yaĵibu ξalā an-nisā’i al-ħublayāti an yastariħna/

The pregnant woman should take rest.

يَجِبُ على المَرْأةِ الحُبْلَى أن تَسْتَرِيحَ

/yaĵibu ξalā al-mar’ati al-ħublā an tastarīħa/

·         In the examples above, we notice that feminine sing in the female words is the long alif " اء " not the " ة ". The plural of these words also end with  the " ات "  suffix, i.e. it is a sound feminine plural. Study the following examples:

حُبْلَى

ublā/

صُغْرَى

/ŝughrâ/

 

كُبْرَى

/kubrâ/

Singular

Pregnant

Younger

Elder

Translation

حُبْلَياتٌ

ublayātun/

صُغْرَياتٌ

/ŝughrayātun/

كُبْرَياتٌ

kubrayātun

Plural



شَّقْرَاءُ

/ashaqrâ'u/

سَّماءٌ

/samā'un/

عَذْراءُ

/ξadhrâ’u/

Singular

 Blonde

Sky

Virgin

Translation

شَّقْرَاواتٌ

/shaqrâwātun/

سَّماواتٌ

/samawātun/

عَذْرَاواتٌ

/ξadhrâwātun/

Plural

·         Now let’s sum up the three types of words that can have a sound feminine plural:
1-Words ending with
" ة "
2-
Words ending with long feminine alif " اء" or feminine alif maqŝuura " ـَى" 
3-
Feminine proper nouns.