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Lesson 31 – الدَّرْسُ الْوَاحِدُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Making the nominal sentence negative - نَفْيُ الجُمْلة الاسْمِيَّةِ

·         To make the nominal sentence negative, we use the particle “laysa ليس (not to be). The nominal sentence starts with a noun, not a verb.

Negative Nominal sentence

Affirmative Nominal sentence

لَيْسَ الأُسْتَاذُ بَخِيلًا

The teacher is not a miser

الأُسْتاذُ كَرِيمٌ

The teacher is generous

طَالِبُ العِلْمِ لَيْسَ كَسْلانَ

The student is not lazy

طَالِبُ العِلْمِ مُتَفَوَّقٌ

The student is brilliant

لَيْسَ القَلَمُ فِي الحَقِيبَةِ

The pen is not in the bag

القَلَمُ في الحَقِيبَةِ

The pen is in the bag

لَيْسَ الجَوُّ حَارًّا

The weather is not hot

الجَوُّ حارٌّ

The weather is hot

لَيْسَ الهَاتِفُ مُغْلَقًا

The phone is not turned off

الهَاتِفُ مُغْلَقٌ

The phone is turned off

Picture

Nominal sentence (Negative with “ma”)

Nominal sentence (Negative with “laysa”)

Affirmative nominal sentence

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ما الأُسْتاذُ بَخِيلا

The teacher is not a miser

لَيْسَ الأُسْتَاذُ بَخِيلًا

The teacher is not a miser

الأُسْتاذُ كَرِيمٌ

The teacher is generous

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ما طَالِبُ العِلْمِ كَسْلانَ

The student is not lazy

طَالِبُ العِلْمِ لَيْسَ كَسْلانَ

The student is not lazy

طَالِبُ العِلْمِ مُتَفَوَّقٌ

The student is brilliant

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ما القَلَمُ في الحَقِيبَةِ

The pen is not in the bag

لَيْسَ القَلَمُ فِي الحَقِيبَةِ

The pen is not in the bag

القَلَمُ في الحَقِيبَةِ

The pen is in the bag

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ما الجَوُّ حارًّا

The weather is not hot

لَيْسَ الجَوُّ حارًّا

The weather is not hot

الجَوُّ حارٌّ

The weather is hot

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ما الهَاتِفُ مُغْلقًا

The phone is not turned off

لَيْسَ الهَاتِفُ مُغْلقًا

The phone is not turned off

الهَاتِفُ مُغْلَقٌ

The phone is turned off

Summary

  • There are five particles used in the negation, as follows:

Change to verb

Example

Change of tense and state (positive / negative)

Particle

(The verb vowel-ending, the đammah, does not change)

لا أُحِبُّ عَصِيرَ الجَوَافَةِ

I do not like the guava juice

Present affirmative
to
Present negative

لا

(The verb vowel-ending, the đammah, changes into the fatħah)

لَنْ أَسْكُنَ مَعَ أُسْرَتِي

I will  not live with my family

Present affirmative
to
Future negative

لَنْ

(The verb vowel-ending, the đammah, changes into the sukūn)

لَمْ يُشاهِدْ أَحْمَدُ

Ahmad did not watch

Present affirmative
to
Past negative

لَمْ

(The verb vowel-ending, the indeclension sign of the past, does not change)

مَا أَكَلَ أحْمَدُ كَثِيرًا

Ahmad did not eat

ما سَافَرْتُ إلى مَكَّةَ

I did not travel to Mecca

Past affirmative
to
Past negative

مَا

(The verb vowel-ending, the đammah, does not change)

ما أُحِبُّ عَصِيرَ الجَوَافَةِ

I do not like the guava juice.

Present affirmative
to
Present negative

ما

(The vowel-endings of the second noun, the predicate, changes from đammah to fatħah)

ما الأُسْتاذُ بَخِيلا

The teacher is not a miser

Nominal affirmative sentence
to
Nominal negative sentence

ما

(The vowel-endings of the second noun, the predicate, changes from đammah to fatħah)

لَيْسَ الأُسْتَاذُ بَخِيلا

The teacher is not a miser

Making the nominal sentence negative

لَيْسَ