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Lesson 31 – الدَّرْسُ الْوَاحِدُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Verb in the Affirmative and the Negative Form- الفِعْلُ المُثْبَتُ والفِعْلُ المَنْفِيُّ

Continued…

  • In lesson 14 on the verb tenses, we discussed the present verb and learnt that it mainly expresses the present tense – i.e. an action being performed at the time of speaking. We noted that it can also express other tenses such as the future (action to be performed at a later time), using the particles (sa- and sawfa حَرْفُ السِّينِ وَسَوْفَ) before the present verb.  Please see the examples below.

 

Future

Present

Arabic

سَيَكْتُبُ  غَدًا

يَكْتُبُ الآنَ

English

He will write tomorrow

He is writing now

Arabic

سَوْفَ يُسَافِرُ غَدًا

يُسافِرُ اليَوْمَ

English

He is going to travel tomorrow

He is traveling today

  • It is important to emphasize two different points before we go into detail.  The particles we are discussing below have the following purposes:
    1. To change the time period (tense) of the present tense verb – e.g. from present tense to future tense.
    2. To change the action to the negative.
  • The exception to that rule is the particle لا which keeps the meaning as the present tense time period.
  • The question now is: How do we make the present verb negative while referring to different time periods, i.e. the present, the future and the past?
  • To answer this question will divide the discussion to the following points:
    1. Making the present verb (indicating the present tense) negative.
    2. Making the present verb (indicating a future action) negative.
    3. Making the present verb (indicating a past action) negative.

Making the present verb (indicating the present tense) negative:

The present verb can be negated and keeping its present tense by the use of two particles as follows:

  1. “lā لا

Picture

Sentence

Tense

Verb

Particle

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

أنا لا أُحِبُّ عَصِيرَ الجَوَافَةِ

I do not like the guava juice

Present

أُحِبُّ

Uħibbu

(Like)

لا

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

نَحْنُ لا نَكْتُبُ عِنْدَمَا يَتَكَلَّمُ الأُسْتَاذُ

We do not write when the teacher is speaking

Present

نَكْتُبُ

Naktubu

(Write)

لا

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

مُنَى لا تُفَضِّلُ القَهْوَةَ، هيَ تُحِبُّ الشِّايَ أَكْثَرَ

Muna does not prefer coffee. She loves tea more.

Present

تُفَضِّلُ

Tufađđilu

(Prefer)

لا

  • From the examples above, we note the following:
    • The particle (lā "لا") is used to make the present verb (indicating the present tense) negative.
    • The vowel-ending of the present verb after the particle (la "لا") does not change from that in the affirmative.

Sentence in the negative

Sentence in the affirmative

لا أُحِبُّ

I do not like

أُحِبُّ

I like

لا نَكْتُبُ

We do not write

نَكْتُبُ

We write

لا تُفضِّلُ

We do not prefer

تُفَضِّلُ

We prefer

  1. “Mā ما

Tense

Verb

Particle

Sentence

Present

أُحِبُّ

Uħibbu

(Like)

ما

أنا ما أُحِبُّ عَصِيرَ الجَوَافَةِ

I do not like the guava juice

Present

نَكْتُبُ

Naktubu

(Write)

ما

نَحْنُ ما نَكْتُبُ عِنْدَما يَتَكَلَّمُ الأُسْتَاذُ

We do not write when the teacher is speaking

Present

تُفَضِّلُ

Tufađđilu

(Prefer)

ما

مُنَى ما تُفَضِّلُ القَهْوَةَ هِيَ تُحِبُّ الشِّايَ أَكْثَرَ

Muna does not prefer coffee. She loves tea more.

  • From the above mentioned examples we note that “mā ما” has the same function and meaning of the particle “lā لا”. Therefore the present verb after “mā ما” keeps indicating the present tense, and its ending is not affected by “mā ما”, so it remains in the nominative case.

Making the present verb (indicating a future action) negative:

The particle

Sentence in the negative

Sentence in the affirmative

لَنْ

بَعْدَ أَنْ تَنْتَهِيَ الدِّراسَةُ لَنْ أَرْجِعَ إلى بَلَدِي

I will not return to my country after I finish my studies.

بَعْدَ أَنْ تَنْتَهِيَ الدِّراسَةُ سَأَرْجِعُ إلى بَلَدِي

I will return to my country after I finish my studies.

لَنْ

لَنْ أَسْكُنَ مَعَ أُسْرَتِي بَعْدَ الزَّوَاجِ

I will not live with my family after marriage

سَأَسْكُنُ معَ أُسْرَتِي بَعْدَ الزَّوَاجِ

I will live with my family after marriage

  • From the examples above, we note the following:
    1.  The particle (lan "لن") is used to make the present verb (indicating a future action) negative.

Sentence in the negative

Sentence in the affirmative

لَنْ يَدْرُسَ

He will not study

سَيَدْرُسُ

He will study

لَنْ يَرْجِعَ

He will not return

سَيَرْجِعُ

He will return

    1. The verb after the particle (lan) becomes in the accusative case with a fatħah vowel-ending instead of the đammah vowel-ending.

Sentence in the negative

Sentence in the affirmative

لَنْ أَرْجِعَ

I will not return

سَأَرْجِعُ

I will return

لَنْ أَسْكُنَ

I will not dwell

سَأَسْكُنُ

I will dwell

Making the present verb (indicating a past action) negative:

  • The particle (lam "لمْ") is used in making the present verb (indicating a past action) negative. “Lam” has three functions, as it makes the present verb negative and changes the tense of the verb from present to past, and finally it changes the verb form the nominative to the jussive case. The meaning of the verb after “lam” had to do with the past and has nothing to do with the present, although it is in the present form.

Picture

Past affirmative

Present negative using “lam”

Present affirmative

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

دَرَسَ عَلِيٌّ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ فِي مِصْرَ

Ali studied Arabic in Egypt

لَمْ يَدْرُسْ عَلِيٌّ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ فِي مِصْرَ

Ali did not study Arabic in Egypt

يَدْرُسُ عَلِيٌّ اللُّغَةَ العَرَبِيَّةَ فِي مِصْرَ

Ali studies Arabic in Egypt

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

كَتَبَ الطَّالِبُ وَاجِبَهُ في المَدْرَسَةِ

The student did his homework at school

لَمْ يَكْتُبِ الطَّالِبُ وَاجِبَهُ في المَدْرَسَةِ

The student did not write his homework at school

يَكْتُبُ الطَّالِبُ وَاجِبَه فِي المَدْرَسَةِ

The student does his homework at school

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شَاهَدَ أَحْمَدُ التِّلْفَازَ أمْسِ

Ahmad watched TV yesterday

لَمْ يُشاهِدْ أَحْمَدُ التِّلْفازَ اليَوْمَ

Ahmad did not watch TV every day

يُشَاهِدُ أَحْمَدُ التِّلْفازَ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ

Ahmad watches TV every day

After adding “lam”

Before adding “lam”

لَمْ يَدْرُسْ

He did not study

يَدْرُسُ

He studies

لَمْ يَكْتُبْ

He did not write

يَكْتُبُ

He writes

لَمْ يُشاهِدْ

He did not watch

يُشَاهِدُ

He watches