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Lesson 31 – الدَّرْسُ الْوَاحِدُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Verb in the Affirmative and the Negative Form- الفِعْلُ المُثْبَتُ والفِعْلُ المَنْفِيُّ

Making the past verb negative

  • Now we will learn how to make the past verb negative and the particles used in this regard.
  • We already discussed the negative of the present verb and the particles used to make it negative that is “la, lam and lan”. To make the past verb negative, we use the particle “mā ما”.

Picture

Negative sentence

Affirmative sentence

Particle

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مَا أَكَلَ أحْمَدُ كَثِيرًا ومَعَ ذَلِكَ أَصْبَحَ سَمِينًا

Ahmad did not eat much. He, however, became fat.

أَكَلَ أَحْمَدُ كَثِيرًا فَأَصْبَحَ سَمِينًا

Ahmad ate much and consequently became fat.

ما

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مَا وَضَعَ عُثْمَان أَمْوَالَهُ فِي مَكَانِها الصَّحِيح

Uthman did not allocate his money in the right place

وَضَعَ عُثْمانُ أَمْوَالَهُ فِي خِدْمَةِ الفُقَرَاء

Uthman allocated his money for the benefit of the poor

ما

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مَا شَاهَدتُ التَّلْفازَ أمْسِ

I did not watch TV yesterday

شَاهَدْتُ التِّلْفَازَ أَمْسِ لِمُدَّةِ ساعَتَينِ

I watched TV for two hours yesterday

ما

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ما سَافَرْتُ إلَى مَكَّةَ مُنْذ ُ خَمْسِ سَنَواتٍ

I have not traveled to Mecca for five years

سَافَرْتُ إلَى مَكَّةَ قَبْلَ خَمْسِ سَنَواتٍ

I traveled to Mecca five years ago

ما

  • From the examples above, we note that:
    1. The past verb indicates one tense only, which is the past tense, unlike the case with the present verb that can be used to indicate the past, present and future depending on the particle used before the verb.
    2. The past verb is made negative through using one particle only, which is “mā ما(مَا أَكَلَ، مَا وَضَعَ، مَا شَاهَدْتُ، ما سَافَرْتُ). This differs from the present verb that has three various particles used in making it negative (Part 2).
    3. The tense verb is indeclinable (Lesson 3). Some past verbs has a fatħah vowel-ending such as (أَكَلَ، وَضَعَ). Others have a sukūn vowel-ending such as (شَاهَدْتُ، سَافَرْتُ). We will discuss this in detail in Lesson 39 In-Shā’-Allâh (God-willing).
    4. The vowel-ending of the past verb does not change when it is preceded by a negation particle, contrary to the case with the present verb when it is preceded by (lan or lam).