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Lesson 81 – الدَّرْسُ الحادِي والثَّمانون

The followers(4) The confirmative  - التَّــوَابِع(٤) الـتَّـوْكِيد

The rules of the confirmative – أحكام التوكيد

  • Following are the rules related to the confirmative:

1-  The confirmative is a follower, i.e. it follows the confirmed part in the declension case (nominative, accusative, or genitive) as all followers.

2-  The confirmative mustn’t be separated from the confirmed noun, i.e. it has to be placed after the confirmed noun directly. Therefore it is wrong to say:

Rather the correct is as follows:

  • The moral confirmative also cannot be separated from the confirmed noun, and so it is wrong to say:

While the correct is to say:

  • The above mentioned sentence is correct because the confirmative is placed after the confirmed noun directly (the confirmed here is الكِتاب). Therefore it is also correct to say:
  • The above mentioned sentence is correct, but the meaning is different, because the confirmed in this sentence is (الحَقِيبة).

3-  The confirmed noun cannot be indefinite noun, rather it has to be definite (if it is a noun), as it is clearly noticed in all previous examples.

4-  The moral confirmative has to be attached to a genitive pronoun related to the confirmed noun. The genitive attached pronoun has to match the confirmed noun in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular, dual, or plural). Consider the following examples:

Structure

Example

Attached pronoun

Confirmative

Confirmed

English

Arabic

Number

Gender

Noun

ـه= هو

نَفْسُه

Singular

Masculine

الطَّالِبُ

The student came in person

حَضَرَ الطَّالِبُ نَفْسُه

ها = هي

نَفْسَها

Singular

Feminine

الْبِنْتَ

The girl, married in person

تَزَوَّجْتُ الْبِنْتَ نَفْسَها

هما

كِلاهُما

Dual

Masculine

الطَّالِبان

The students went out, both of them

خَرَجَ الطَّالِبان كِلاهُما

هُمْ

جَمِيعُهُم

Plural

Masculine

الأَوْلادُ

The boys slept, all of them

نامَ الأَوْلادُ جَمِيعُهُم

5-  The moral confirmative has different form for each of  the singular, dual and plural, as follows:

a-    The moral confirmative of the singular noun is formed of the singular noun (نَفْس - عَيْن) attached to the proper singular genitive pronoun, as in the following examples:

b-     The confirmative of the plural noun is one of the plural words (أَنْفُسأَعْيُنُجَمِيع - عامَّة) attached to the proper genitive plural pronoun, as in the following examples:

c-    The confirmative of the dual noun is formed of one of the dual nouns (كِلا - كِلْتا) attached to a dual genitive pronoun, as in the following examples:

6-  We learnt earlier that the confirmed noun can be an attached pronoun or a latent pronoun, and in these cases the confirmative has to be a separate pronoun. Let’s study more examples of this with the declension of the pronoun (the confirmative):

Declension of the confirmative

The pronoun

الضمير

Examples

The confirmative

The confirmed

English

Arabic

Indeclinable in place of nominative

أَنْتَ

تَ

You came to Egypt

حَضَرْتَ أَنْتَ إلى مِصْرَ

Indeclinable in place of nominative

نَحْنُ

ـنا

We went out of Egypt

خَرَجْنَا نَحْنُ مِنْ مِصْرَ

Indeclinable in place of nominative

هُوَ

ضمير مستتر

He returned to his house

عَادَ هُوَ إِلَى بَيْتِهِ

Indeclinable in place of accusative

هُم

ـهم

I forgave them, them not you

سامَحْتهُم هُمْ لا أَنْتُم

Indeclinable in place of genitive

أَنْتُم

ـكم

I came to visit you

حَضَرْتُ لِزِيارَتِكُم أَنْتُم

Indeclinable in place of genitive

هُوَ

ـه

I will live with him

سَأَسْكُنُ مَعَهُ هُوَ

  • We now clearly understand that the pronoun can be a confirmative of another pronoun. But the noun cannot be a confirmative of a preceding pronoun. Therefore it is wrong to say:
  • Also, the pronoun cannot be a confirmative of a preceding noun as follows:
  • Therefore the correct is to confirm a noun by a noun, or a pronoun by a pronoun as we learnt earlier.
  • N.B.: the following sentence includes two pronouns:
  • The first pronoun is a latent pronoun, and it is confirmed noun, while the second (هُوَ) is a confirmative indeclinable noun in place of nominative because it is a confirmative of the doer of the verb.