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Lesson 81 – الدَّرْسُ الحادِي والثَّمانون

The followers(4) The confirmative  - التَّــوَابِع(٤) الـتَّـوْكِيد

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • We learnt in lesson 78 that there are four types of followers in Arabic. The follower is the part of the sentence which follows the preceding part in the declension case, i.e. it takes the same declension case of the followed part (nominative, accusative, or genitive). Sometimes the follower takes also the same gender, number and definition of the followed noun.
  • The three followers which we covered so far are as follows:

1-    The adjective:

  • We learnt in lesson 78 that the real adjective follows the described noun in four things (declension, gender, number, and definition). Consider the following examples (for revision purpose):

Example

The rule

English

Arabic

Explanation

Accordance

The hardworking student attended

حَضَرَ الطَّالِبُ المْجْتَهِدُ

The real adjective has to take the same declension case of the described noun

Declension case

I helped the hardworking student

ساعَدْتُ الطَّالِبَ المُجْتَهِدَ

I will go with the hardworking student

سَأَذْهَبُ مَعَ الطَّالِبِ المُجْتَهِدِ

The generous man died

ماتَ الرَّجُلُ الْكَرِيمُ

The real adjective follows the described noun in gender (feminine or masculine)

Gender

The generous woman died

ماتَتِ المَرْأَةُ الْكَرِيمَةُ

This is a beautiful book

هَذَا كِتابٌ جَمِيلٌ

The real adjective follows the described noun in the number (being singular, dual or plural)

Number

These are two big houses

هَذَانِ بَيْتَانِ كَبِيرانِ

These are old students

هَؤُلاءِ طُلابٌ كِبارٌ

These are old female students

هَؤُلاءِ طالِباتٌ كَبِيراتٌ

On the desk there is a beautiful book

عَلَى الْمَكْتَبِ كِتابٌ جَمِيلٌ

The real adjective follows the described noun in definition (i.e. being definite or indefinite)

Definition

The beautiful book is on the desk

الْكِتابُ الْجَمِيلُ عَلَى المَكْتَبِ

2-    The coordinated noun:

  • We learnt in lesson 79 that the coordinated noun follows the preceding noun in the declension only, and it falls after a coordination particle (حَرْف عَطْف), which links it to the preceding noun. Consider the following revision example:

English

Arabic

Muhammad and Ali attended

حَضَرَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَعَلِيٌّ

3-    The substitute:

  • We learnt in lesson 80 that the substitute follows the substituted for in the declension only, and that it falls after it without any particle, and it is originally meant in the sentence when we mention the substituted for. Consider the following revision example:

English

Arabic

The student Muhammad came

حَضَرَ الطَّالِبُ مُحَمَّدٌ

  • In this lesson we will study the fourth and the last Arabic follower, which is the confirmative (التَّوْكيد), In-Shaa’-Allaah (God willing).
  • The confirmative is the follower which affirms the reality of its followed noun, by repeating its pronunciation (oral confirmative), or by repeating its meaning (moral confirmative). Consider the following examples:

Example

Type

English

Arabic

The student, the student came

حَضَرَ الطّالِبُ الطَّالِبُ

Oral confirmative

The student came himself

حَضَرَ الطّالِبُ نَفْسُهُ

Moral confirmative

  • In the first example the followed noun (الطَّالِبُ) is in the nominative case, because it is the doer of the verb, while the repeated noun (الطَّالِبُ) is an oral confirmative, so it is in the same nominative case.
  • In the second example the word (نفْسُهُ) is a moral confirmative, so it takes the same declension case of the followed noun (الطَّالِبُ).
  • In this lesson we will learn the two types of the confirmative, and we will study its rules, and how to distinguish it from the other three previous followers, In-Shaa’-Allaah (God willing).