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Lesson 81 – الدَّرْسُ الحادِي والثَّمانون

The followers(4) The confirmative  - التَّــوَابِع(٤) الـتَّـوْكِيد

Types of Confirmative – أَنْوَاع التَّوْكِيد

  • There are two types of confirmative as follows:

1-    The oral confirmative:

  • This type affirms the reality of its followed noun, by repeating its pronunciation, i.e. repeating the same noun, verb, phrase, or sentence. This assures that we mean the followed part in reality without exaggeration or reticence (figuration or metaphor).
  • Sometimes the confirmed noun is an attached pronoun, or latent pronoun. In this case when we want to repeat it we have to mention the separate form of the pronoun, as in the following examples:

Structure

Examples

The confirmative

The confirmed

English

Arabic

أَنْتُم

ـوا

Go, you and your brothers

اِذْهَبُوا أَنْتُم وَإِخْوَانُكُم

أَنْتَ

Latent pronoun

Live in the flat, you and your wife

اُسْكُن أَنْتَ وَزُجَتُكَ الشَّقَّةَ

هُوَ

Latent pronoun

He attended, he and those who was with him

حَضَرَ هُوَ ومنْ مَعَهُ

  • The oral confirmative can also be a verb as in the following examples:

 

Picture

Structure

Examples

The confirmative

The confirmed

English

Arabic

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نامَ

نامَ

The child slept, he slept

نامَ نامَ الطِّفْلُ

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عادَ

عَادَ

The enemies came, they came

عَادَ عادَ الأَعْدَاء

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أَكَلْتُ

أَكَلْتُ

I ate, I ate the bread

أَكَلْتُ أَكَلْتُ الْخُبْزَ

  • The confirmative can also be used to confirm particles and preposition, as in the following examples:

Structure

Example

The confirmative

The confirmed

English

Arabic

لا

لا

I do not never reveal the secret

لا، لا أَبُوحُ بِالسِّرِّ

نَعَم

نَعَم

Yes, yes, this is my brother

نَعَم، نَعَم هَذَا أخِي

2-    The moral confirmative:

  • This type affirms the reality of its followed noun, by repeating its meaning, i.e. by another noun which means: itself, himself, ourselves, etc. This also assures that we mean the followed part in reality without exaggeration or reticence (figuration or metaphor). 
  • There are some Arabic words can make the function of the moral confirmative as follows:

أَعْيُنُ

عَيْن

أَنْفُس

نَفْس

Arabic

Selves (eyes)

Self (eye)

Selves

Self (in person)

English

كِلتا

كِلا

عَامَّة

جَمِيع

Arabic

Both (feminine)

Both (masculine)

All

All

English

  • Consider the following examples:

 

Picture

Structure

Examples

The confirmative

The confirmed

English

Arabic

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نَفْسُهُ

المُدِيرُ

The manager talked, him self

تَكَلَّمَ المُدِيرُ نَفْسُهُ

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نَفْسُها

الطَّالِبَةُ

The student came in person

حَضَرَتِ الطَّالِبَةُ نَفْسُها

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عَيْنَهُ

الإمامَ

I saw the Imam himself

رَأَيْتُ الإمامَ عَيْنَهُ

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عَيْنِها

الجَامِعَةِ

I went to the university itself

ذَهَبْتُ إلى الجَامِعَةِ عَيْنِها

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أَنْفُسُهُم

الطُّلابُ

The students came themselves

حَضَرَ الطُّلابُ أَنْفُسُهُم

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أَنْفُسُهُم

المُجْرِمُونَ

These are the criminals themselves

هَؤُلاءِ هُمُ المُجْرِمُونَ أَنْفُسُهُم

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جَمِيعَهُم

الزَّائِرِينَ

The bomb killed the visitors, all of them.

قَتَلَتِ الْقُنْبُلَةُ الزَّائِرِينَ جَمِيعَهُم

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كِلْتَيْهِما

التَّفَّاحَتَيْنِ

I ate the two apples, both of them

أَكَلْتُ التَّفَّاحَتَيْنِ كِلْتَيْهِما

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كِلاهُما

الْبُرْجَانِ

The two towers fell down, both of them

سَقَطَ الْبُرْجَانِ كِلاهُما

  • From the above mentioned examples we notice that the moral confirmative has to follow the confirmed noun in number (singular, dual, or plural). Therefore there are three forms of moral confirmative according to its number as follows: