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Lesson 71 – الدَّرْسُ الحادِي والسَّبْعونَ الْحَال

The condition of the status and the concerned noun -  شُرُوطُ الْحالِ وصاحِبِه

  • In the sentence which contains a status there are three main parts as in the following example:

English

Arabic

Tariq returned riding

رَجَعَ طَارِقٌ رَاكِبًا

/raĵaξa ŧârikun râkiban/

  • In the above mentioned sentence there are three main parts as follows:

1-    A complete verb (i.e. not deficient verb as the annullers, because the sentence after the annuller verbs remains a nominal sentence). You may notice the complete verb above (رَجَعَ).

2-    The concerned noun (طَارِقٌ) which is described by the status. This noun can be the doer, the object, or a genitive noun.

3-    The status (رَاكِبًا) which describes the concerned noun during the action of the verb.

The conditions of the status:

1-    If the status is a single noun, it has to be indefinite, as follows:

Picture

The status

English meaning

Example

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سَعِيدًا

I came from Egypt happy

رَجَعْتُ مِنْ مِصْرَ سَعِيدًا

/raĵaξtu min miŝra saξīdan/

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مُتَفَائِلاً

I went to the exam optimist

ذَهَبْتُ إلى الاِمْتِحانِ مُتَفَائِلاً

/dhahabtu ilā alimtiħani mutafā’ilan/

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عاجِزًا

The worker went out of the factory disabled

خَرَجَ العَامِلُ مِنَ الْمَصْنَعِ عاجِزًا

/kharaĵa al ξāmilu min al maŝnaξi ξāĵizan/

·         If the status is a sentence, it has to contain a pronoun referring to the concerned noun and relating the status sentence to the bigger sentence, as in the following example:

The pronoun

The status

English meaning

Example

Latent pronoun (he)

يَشْكُرُ الْجُمْهُورَ

The player went out of the match thanking the viewers

خَرَجَ اللاعِبُ مِنَ المُباراةِ يَشْكُرُ الْجُمْهُورَ

/kharaĵa al lāξibu min al mubārâti yashkuru al ĵumhūra/

Latent pronoun (he)

يَشْكُو الْحُكَّامَ

And the trainer went out complaining the referees

وَخَرَجَ المُدَرِّبُ يَشْكُو الْحُكَّامَ

/wa kharaĵa al mudarribu yashkū al ħukkāma/

Attached pronoun (و)

يَضْحَكُونَ

And the referees went out laughing

وَخَرَجَ الْحُكَّامُ يَضْحَكُونَ

/wa kharaĵa al ħukkāmu yađħakūna/

2-    The status has to follow the concerned noun in the gender and the number (but it doesn’t follow it neither in the grammatical case nor in the definition, because the status is always in the accusative case and always indefinite). Consider the following example:

English

Arabic

Khalid entered the city riding

دَخَل خالِدٌ المَدِينَةَ راكِبًا

/dakhala khâlidun al madīnata râkiban/

  • The status in the above mentioned example (راكِبًا) follows the concerned noun (خالِدٌ) in the gender and number (masculine singular), but it is different in definition and grammatical case.

The conditions of the concerned noun:

1-  It has to be, originally, a definite noun. You may notice this condition in all the above mentioned examples. But there is an exception of this rule, when the concerned noun is specified by a questioning, negation, annexation, description, etc. as in the following examples:

The cause of the indefinition

The concerned noun

English meaning

Example

Specified by a questioning

أَحَدٌ

Did anyone come happy?

هَلْ حَضَرَ أَحَدٌ سَعِيدًا؟

/hal ħađara aħadun saξīdan/

Specified by a negation

أَحَدٌ

No, no one came happy

لا، لَمْ يَحْضُرْ أَحَدٌ سَعِيدًا

/lā lam yaħđuru aħadun saξīdan/

Specified by a questioning

طالِبًا

How many students came riding

كَمْ طالِبًا جاءَ رَاكِبًا؟

/kam ŧâliban ĵā’a râkiban/

The advance of the status

طالِبانِ

طالِبٌ

Two students came riding, and one student came walking

رَاكِبًا جاءَ طالِبانِ، وماشِيًا جاءَ طالِبٌ

/râkiban ĵā’a ŧâlibāni wa māshiyan ĵā’a ŧâlibun/

Specified by the annexation

سِتَّةٌ

Six men fell injured in the battle

سَقَطَ فِي المَعْرَكَةِ سِتَّةُ رِجالٍ جَرْحَى

/saqaŧa fī al maξrakati sittatu riĵālin ĵarħā/

Specified by the descriptive noun (adjective)

صَدِيقٌ

An intimate friend came asking my help

جاءَنِي صَدِيقٌ حَمِيمٌ طالِبًا مُسَاعَدَتِي

/ĵā’anī ŝadīqun ħamīmun ŧâliban musāξadatī/

  • The above mentioned table shows the exceptional cases in which the concerned noun can be indefinite.