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Lesson 71 – الدَّرْسُ الحادِي والسَّبْعونَ الْحَال

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In the previous five lessons we learnt the five types of the objects (الْمَفاعِيل / al mafāξeel). We learnt that the objects are accusative dispensable nouns in the verbal sentence. All the five objects are related to the verb, and affected by it.
  • In this lesson we will study another accusative noun in the verbal sentence, which is the status (الْحال / alħāl). Unlike the objects, the status is not related to the verb; rather it is related to another noun in the verbal sentence which is called the concerned noun. The concerned noun can be the doer (الفاعِل/alfāξil) as in the following sentence:

Pictur

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Muhammad came walking (on foot)

جاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ ماشِيًا

/ĵā’a muħammadun māshiyan/

 

  • The concerned noun can also be the direct object as follows:

Pictur

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

I saw the student happy

رَأَيْتُ الطَّالِبَ سَعِيدًا

/ra’aytu aŧ ŧâliba saξīdan/

  • In the above mentioned two examples we notice that the status (ماشِيًا -  سَعِيدًا) is an accusative dispensable noun (supplement), which describes the aspect of the concerned noun in the occurrence of the verb.
  • In this lesson we will learn the following topics In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing):

1-            The definition of the status, with examples.

2-            The conditions of the status, and of the concerned noun, to which the status is related. E.g. the status should be indefinite, and the concerned noun should be definite as in the following examples:

Pictur

Concerned

Status

Example

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

الوَلَدُ

مُسْرِعًا

The boy came hurrying

حَضَرَ الوَلَدُ مُسْرِعًا

/ħađara al waladu musriξan/

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الطِّفْلُ

حَزِينًا

The child sleeps unhappy

ينامُ الطِّفْلُ حَزِينًا

/yanāmu aŧ ŧiflu ħazīnan/

 

3-            We will also learn the different types of the status, i.e. it can be a single noun, a sentence, or a quasi sentence (preposition + noun) as in the following examples:

 

 

Type

Of

status

 

 

Single

 

 

Arabic

جاء الطَّالِبُ باسمًا

/ĵā’a aŧ ŧâlibu bāsiman/

English

The student came smiling

Arabic

كَتَبْتُ الدَّرْسَ مُسْرِعًا

/katabtu ad darsa

English

I wrote the lesson hurrying

 

 

 

Sentence

Arabic

حَضَر الطَّالِبُ يَبْتَسِمُ

/ħađara aŧ ŧâlibu yabtasimu/

English

The student came smiling

Arabic

كَتَبْتُ الدَّرْسَ وَأنا أُسْرِعُ

/katabtu ad darsa wa ana usriξu/

English

I wrote the lesson while I was hurrying

 

 

Quasi sentence

Arabic

جاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ فِي وَجْهٍ بَشُوشٍ

/ĵā’a muħammadun fī waĵhin bashūshin/

English

Muhammad came bright-faced

Arabic

كَتَبْتُ الدَّرْسَ فِي عَجَلَةٍ

/katabtu ad darsa fī ξaĵalatin/

English

I wrote the lesson in hurry

 

4-            We will also learn about the /wāw/ of the status, which comes in the beginning of the status sentence.