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Lesson 70 – الدَّرْسُ السَّبْعونَ

The concomitant object  - الْمَفْعُول مَـعَـهُ

The declension of the noun falling after the /wāw/ -إعراب الاسم الموجود بعد الواو

  • There are four cases of the declension of the noun which falls after the /wāw/ as follows:

1-   When the /wāw/ means with, the noun after it is a concomitant object, and it has to be in the accusative case as in the following examples:

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English meaning

Arabic example

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Khalid walked along the mountain

سارَ خالِدٌ والجَبَلَ

/sāra khâlidun wal ĵabala/

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I came at the sunrise

حَضَرْتُ وشُرُوقَ الشَّمْسِ

/ħađartu wa shurūqa ash shamsi/

  • In these above mentioned examples the nouns after /wāw/ have to be accusative concomitant objects, because if they are followers they will be in the same case of the doer, and this would mean that they make the action of the verb or participate in it, but this is not true, i.e. the mountain does not walk, and the sunrise does not come.
  • Therefore the concomitant object has to be obligatorily in the accusative case.

2- When the /wāw/ is of the coordination (attraction) the noun after it has to be a follower, i.e. it has to follow the noun which precedes the /wāw/ in its declension case. Because the /wāw/ of the coordination means that both of its preceding and its following noun are equal in the action and in the grammatical function, as in the following examples:

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English meaning

Arabic examples

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Muhammad and Ali came

حَضَرَ مُحَمَّدٌ وَعَلِيٌّ

/ħađara muħammadun wa ξaliyyun/

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I ate the grape fruit and the pomegranate

أَكَلْتُ العِنَبَ وَالرُّمَّانَ

/akaltu al ξinaba war rummāna/

3-   Sometimes the /wāw/ may mean coordination (attraction), but it is better to understand it as a concomitant particle, and making the following noun in the accusative case as in the following examples:

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English meaning

Arabic example

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I came with Khalid

حَضَرْتُ وَخالِدًا

/ħađartu wa khâlidan/

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I slept with my wife

نِمْتُ وَزَوْجَتِي

/nimtu wa zawĵatī/

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Do not hope for wealth with lowliness

لا تَتَمَنَّى الْغِنَى والذُّلَّ

/lā tatamannā al ghinā wa adhulla/

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Do not like eating with satiety

لا يُعْجِبُكَ الأَكْلُ وَالشَّبَعَ

/lā yuξĵibka al aklu wa ash shibaξa/

4-   Other times it is possible to understand the /wāw/ with both meanings, but it is better to make it as coordination particle, i.e. the noun after it follows the grammatical case of the preceding noun as follows:

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English meaning

Arabic example

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Ahmed and Ali shared in the competition

اِشْتَرَكَ أَحْمَدُ وَعَلِيٌّ فِي المُسَابَقة

/ishtaraka aħmadu wa ξaliyyun fī al musābaqati/

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Khalid came and the rain was heavy

حَضَرَ خَالِدٌ وَالْمَطَرُ شَدِيدٌ

/ħađara khâlidun wal maŧaru shadīdun/

  • In the first example the verb (اِشْتَرَكَ) meaning share, is better to be practiced by more than one person, so the /wāw/ is preferred to be coordination particle, and the noun after it is preferred to be a follower to the preceding noun in its declension.
  • In the second example the /wāw/ is preferred to be a /wāw/ of status, i.e. followed by a new complete sentence, in which the noun after the /wāw/ is a nominative subject.