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Lesson 69 – الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ والسِّتُّونَ

The Circumstantial object(Adverbs of Time and Place) -الْمَفْعُولُ فِيهِ

Declinable adverbs – الظُّروف المُعْرَبة

  • The adverbs are divided into two types according to its declension or indeclension as follows:

 

-          The declinable adverbs, which can be changed according to its position in the sentence.

-          The indeclinable adverbs, which have one vowel-ending and do not change whatever its position in the sentence is.

  • In this part we only study the declinable adverbs. The declinable adverbs have only two cases of declension as follows:

1-             The accusative case (this is the main case of the declinable adverb)

2-            The genitive case (after the preposition (فِي /fī)

·         The adverb of time (ظرف الزمان): When we study the adverb of time we notice that it can only be declinable in the accusative case, whether it is limited as (يَوْمًاساعَةً - سَنَةً) or vague as (دَهْرًاوَقْتًا - زَمَنًا).

Picture

English meaning

Example

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He stopped taking for a period

سَكَتَ عَنِ الكَلامِ دَهْرًا

/sakata ξan al kalāmi dahran/

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I lived in London for a long time

عِشْتُ فِي لَنْدَنَ زَمَنًا طَوِيلاً

/ξishtu fī landan zamanan ŧawīlan/

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I spent with my wife a beautiful time

قَضَيْتُ مَعَ زَوْجَتِي وَقتًا جَمِيلاً

/qađaytu maξa zawĵati waqtan ŧawīlan/

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I only slept one hour

مانِمْتُ إلا ساعَةً واحِدَةً

/mā nimtu illā sāξatan wāħidatan/

·         The adverb of place (ظرف المكان): When we study the declension of the adverb of place we notice that there are two cases as follows

·         The accusative case: This case occurs when the adverb of place is vague (unlimited) as (فَوقَتَحْتَيَمِينَ - شِمالَ). These adverbs has to be specified by an annexed noun as in the following examples:

Pictures

English meaning

Examples

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The car stopped in front of the house

وَقَفَت السَّيَّارةُ أَمامَ البَيْتِ

/waqafat as sayyāratu amāma al bayti/

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The director sat behind the camera

جَلَسَ المُخْرِجُ خَلْفَ الكامِيرا

/ĵalasa al mukhriĵu khlafa al camera/

·         When the adverb is derived from the stem of the verb, it also has to be in the accusative case

·         There is one condition under which these adverbs are in the accusative case: that they have to be mentioned with the verb of the same stem as follows:

Explanation

English meaning

Example

i.e. in the place where the scientists sit

I sat in the place of scientists

جَلَسْتُ مَجْلِسَ العُلَماء

/ĵalastu maĵlisa al ξulamā’i/

i.e. in the place where the pilgrims run

I run the track of pilgrims

سَعَيْتُ مَسْعَى الحُجَّاجِ

/saξaytu masξā al ħuĵĵāĵi/

i.e. in the place where

the rational people go

I (went) did as rationales

ذَهَبْتُ مَذْهَبَ العُقَلاءِ

/dhahabtu madhhaba al ξuqalā’i/

·         The genitive case: this occurs when the adverb is limited (not vague) as (بَيْتَقَرْيَة - شَقَّة) and not derived from the same stem of the verb, it has to be preceded with the preposition (فِي /fī/) which causes the genitive case as in the following examples:

English meaning

Example

I lived in a flat

سَكَنْتُ فِي شَقَّةٍ

/sakantu fī shaqqatin/

I stayed at the village

أَقَمْتُ فِي البَلَدِ

/aqamtu fī al baladi/

I prayed in the Mosque

صَلَّيْتُ فِي المَسْجِدِ

/ŝallaytu fī al masĵidi/

I brought the things from the market

اِشْتِرَيْتُ الأَشْياءَ مِنَ السُّوقِ

/ishtaraytu al ashyā’a min as sūqi/

I prefer the life of the village

أُفَضِّلُ الحَياةَ فِي الْقَرْيَةِ

/ufađđilu al ħayāta fī al qaryati/

·         You may notice that the adverbs of the above mentioned examples are in the genitive case, because they are not vague (unlimited) rather each of them refers to a limited place as (شَقَّةٍالبَلَدِالسُّوقِ - الْقَرْيَةِ) and none of them is derived from the same stem of the preceding verb.

 

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