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Lesson 69 – الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ والسِّتُّونَ

The Circumstantial object(Adverbs of Time and Place) -الْمَفْعُولُ فِيهِ

Indeclinable adverbs – الظُّروف المبنية

  • In this part we will learn the second type of the adverbs, which is the indeclinable adverbs, In-Shā’-Allâh (God willing).
  • We learnt earlier (in lesson 3) that the declinable noun is that which has different endings according to its position in the sentence, while the indeclinable noun is that which has only one ending that does not change whatever its position in the sentence is.
  • The indeclinable adverbs are as follows:

a-    Some of the indeclinable adverbs are adverbs of time only as in the following examples:

Adverb

الآنَ

أَمْسِ

مُنْذُ

أَيَّانَ

Meaning

Now

Yesterday

Science

When

Adverb

لَمَّا

قَطُّ

بَيْنَما

 

Meaning

when

never

While

 

b-          Some other indeclinable adverbs are adverbs of place only as follows:

Adverb

دُونَ

لَدُن

لَدَى

Meaning

Less than

At one’s possess

Adverb

أَنَّى

ثَمَّةَ

ثَمَّ

Meaning

however

From wherever

There

c-   Some other adverbs are used for both time and place, according to the meaning in the sentence. Consider the following examples:

Adverb

مَعَ

حَيْثُ

بَيْنَ

Meaning

With

Whenever – wherever

Between

  • The following table shows more examples of the indeclinable adverbs:

Indeclension sign

Adverb

Sentence

English

Arabic

/fatħah/

الآنَ

The family is cleaning the apartment now

الأُسْرَةُ تُنَظِّفُ الشَّقَّةَ الآنَ

/kasrah/

أَمْسِ

I left work yesterday

تَرَكْتُ العَمَلَ أَمْسِ

/đammah/

مُنْذُ

I didn’t go to work science a month

لَمْ أَذْهَبْ إلى العَمَلِ مُنْذُ شَهْرٍ

/fatħah/

أَيَّانَ

My friend is asking where the exam is

يَسْأَلُ صَدِيقِي أَيَّانَ الاِمْتِحانُ

/sukūn/

بَيْنَما

My wife slept while the child is still awake

نامَتْ زَوْجَتِي بَيْنَما الطِّفْلُ مُسْتَيْقِظٌ

/đammah/

قَطُّ

I never blasphemed my parents

ما سَبَبْتُ وَالِدَيَّ قَطُّ

/sukūn/

لَمَّا

When the war broke out I was absent

لَمَّا قامَتِ الْحَرْبُ كُنْتُ غائِبًا

/sukūn/

لَدَى

Othman has a big library

لَدَى عُثْمانُ مَكْتَبَةٌ كَبِيرَةٌ

/sukūn/

لَدُن

Allah taught him knowledge from Him

عَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ لَدُنْه عِلْمًا

/fatħah/

دُونَ

Take the book

الكِتابُ دُونَكَ

/sukūn/

أَنَّى

When the two teams will play

أَنَّى سَيَلْعَبُ الفَرِيقان

/fatħah/

ثَمَّ

Wherever you go, there is your livelihood

أَيْنَما تَذْهَب ثَمَّ رِزْقُكَ مَوُجودٌ

/fatħah/

بَيْنَ

Omar came between midday and afternoon

أَتَى عُمَرُ بَيْنَ الظُّهْرِ والْعَصْرِ

/fatħah/

بَيْنَ

I live between the hospital and university

أَسْكُنُ بَيْنَ الْمُسْتَشْفَى والْجَامِعَةِ

/đammah/

حَيْثُ

I pray whenever I hear the call

أُصَلِّي حَيْثُ أَسْمَعُ النِّداءَ

/đammah/

حَيْثُ

I wake up early whenever I pray the dawn

اَسْتَيْقِظُ مُبَكِّرًا حَيْثُ أُصَلِّي الفِجْرَ

/fatħah/

مَعَ

I woke up with the sunrise

اِسْتَيْقَظْتُ مَعَ شُرُوقِ الشَّمْسِ

/fatħah/

مَعَ

I learnt with the great scientist

تَعَلَّمْتُ مَعَ الْعُلَماءِ الكِبارِ