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Lesson 55 – الدَّرْسُ الخامِسُ وَالْخَمْسُونَ الْمُثَنَّى

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

·         In Arabic a word is written differently depending on whether it is in singular, dual (two of something) or plural (more than two).

  • In this lesson we will learn the dual (المُثَنَّى /al muthannā/) In-Shā'- Allâh (God willing). The dual is a declinable noun which shows two of something and takes a different form in masculine or feminine.
  • It is formed by adding Alif and Nuun (انِ /āni) or Yā' and Nuun (ينِ /yni)to the ending of a word in singular form, e.g.: (please read from right to left)

Picture

Dual

Singular

English

Arabic

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وَلَدانِ

/waladāni/

boy

 

وَلَدٌ

/waladun/

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بِنْتانِ

/bintāni/

Girl

بِنْتٌ

/bintun/

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بَيْتَيْنِ

/baytayni/

 

Home

بِيْتٍ

/baytin/

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سَمَكَتَيْنِ

/samakatayni/

Fish

سَمَكَةٍ

/samakatin/

  • In this lesson we will also learn how we can change the noun from singular (one of something) into dual form (two of something), and the conditions under which a noun can be changed into dual.
  • We will also learn the declension of the dual. For example, we will understand whether the dual is changed by the vowel endings (đammah, fatħah, or kasrah) or if it has its own forms in declension.
  • The following table shows you the difference between the declension of the singular and the dual forms of a word:

declension

English example

Arabic example

Type

Sign

case

Đammah

Nominative

I am a teacher

أَنَا مُدَرِّسٌ

/ana mudarris/

Singular المُفْرَد

alif

Nominative

We are two teachers

نَحْنُ  مُدَرِّسانِ

/naħnu mudarrisāni/

Dual

 الْمُثَنَّى

fatħah

Accusative

I saw a teacher

رَأَيْتُ مُدَرِّسًا

/ra'aytu mudarrisan/

Singular المُفْرَد

Yā'

Accusative

I saw two teachers

رَأَيْتُ مُدَرِّسَيْنِ

/ra'aytu mudarrisayni/

Dual

 الْمُثَنَّى

Kasrah

Genitive

I study with a teacher

أدْرُسُ مَعَ مُدَرِّسٍ

/adrusu maξa mudarrisin/

Singular المُفْرَد

Yā'

Genitive

I study with two teachers

أدْرُسُ مَعَ مُدَرِّسَيْنِ

/adrusu maξa mudarrisayni/

Dual

 الْمُثَنَّى

  • We will also learn that when another noun is annexed to the dual, the Nuun in the end of the dual is omitted, e.g.:

With annexation

Without annexation

English

Arabic

English

Arabic

These are the two books of the student

هَذَانِ كِتَابَا الطَّالِبِ

These are two books

هَذانِ كِتابانِ

The two hands of the man are strong

يَدَا الرَّجُلِ قَوِيَّتانِ

The man has two strong hands

الرَّجُلُ لَهُ يَدَانِ قَوِيَّتَانِ