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Lesson 51 – الدَّرْسُ الْواحِدُ وَالْخَمْسُونَ  الاسـم الممـدود

The Hamza of the Mamdūd Nounهمزة الاسم الممدود

  • As we learnt above, the Mamdūd Noun is a singular noun ending with a hamza (ء) preceded by a long alif.
  • The dual and plural forms as well as the declension of the Mamdūd Noun depend on the type of its hamza, which may be one of three types as follows:
    1- Radical hamza
    هَمْزَةٌ أصْليّةٌ /hamzatun aŝliyyatun/
  • In this case the radical hamza is one of the radicals of the word, for example:

Picture

Translation

Example

Radicals of the word

Mamdūd Noun

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Reciters of poetry are eloquent.

 قَرَّاءُ الشِّعْرِ طَلِيقُ اللِّسان.

قَرَأَ

/qara'a/

قَرَّاء

/qarrâ'/

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My neighbor was the most one to fend off evil.

كانَ جَارِي دَرَّاءً للمَفَاسِدِ.

دَرَأ

/dara'a/

دَرَّاء

/darrâ'/

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Al-Barra'u ibn ξāzibin was one of Muhammad's (peace be upon him) companions.

البَرَّاءُ بن عازِبٍ وَاحِدٌ مِنَ صَحَابَةِ مُحَمَّد - صَلى الله عليه وسلم -

بَرِئَ

/bari'a/

بَرَّاء

/barrā'/

  • Reviewing the above examples, we notice that the hamza is a letter of the radicals of the word and cannot be omitted from the word therefore this type of hamza is أصْليّةٌ or radical.
    2- Converted hamza همزةٌ مُنقلبةٌ /hamzatun munqalibatun/
  • This type of hamza is not one of the radicals of the word, but it is converted from either a wāw و or yā' ي, which means that the radical of the hamza is one of the two letters wāw و or yā' ي. We can know whether the hamza is radical or converted through the present verb of the word from which the Mamdūd noun is derived.

Picture

Translation

Example

Radicals of the word

Mamdūd Noun

Present

Past

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The sky today is clear.

السَّماءُ اليَوْمَ صَافِيَةٌ.

يَسْمُو

/yasmū/

سما 

/samā/

سماء

/smā'/

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Don't be sad, trial will be good at the end.

لا تَحْزَن فالابتلاءُ نهايتُهُ جَيِّدَةٌ.

يَبْتَلِي

/yabtalī/

اِبْتَلَى

/ibtalā/

اِبْتِلاء

/ibtilā'/

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Smoking is harmful to heath and pollutes air

التَّدْخِينُ يَضُرُّ بالصِّحَّةِ، وَيُلَوِّثُ الهَوَاءَ.

يَهْوِي

/yahwī/

هَوَى

/hawā/

هَواء

/hawā'/

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My teacher's name is ξalā'.

اِسْمُ أُسْتَاذِي عَلاء.

يَعْلُو

/yaξlū/

عَلَى

/ξalā/  

عَلاء

/ ξalā'/

Picture

Translation

Example

Radicals of the word

Mamdūd Noun

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Greenland is the source of good and clean air.

الأَرْضُ الخَضْرَاء هِي مَصْدَرُ الخَيْرِ والهَوَاءِ النَّقِيِّ.

خَضَر

/khađar/

خَضْرَاء

/khađrâ'/

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My brother prefers red clothes.

يُفَضِّلُ أَخِي المَلابِسَ الحَمْرَاءَ.

حَمَر

/ħamar/

حَمْرَاء

/ħamrâ'/

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Black eyes resist sunrays more than blue eyes can.

العُيُونُ السَّوْدَاء تَتَحَمَّلُ الشَّمْسَ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ العُيُون الزَّرْقَاء.

سَوَد

/sawad/

سَوْدَاء

/sawdā'/

 

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زَرَق

/zaraq/

زَرْقَاء

/zarqâ'/

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Beautiful girls attract young men.

البِنْتُ الحسناءُ تُعْجِبُ الشَّبابَ.

حَسَن

/ħasan/

حَسْنَاء

/ħasnā'/

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Hayfā' means a tall girl.

الهَيْفاءُ هِي البِنْتُ الطَّوِيلَة.

هَيَف

/hayaf/

هَيْفَاء

/hayfā'/

  • As you see in the above examples, the hamza is neither a radical of the words nor converted from any other letter, but it is augmented to turn a masculine word to feminine. For example, the radicals of the words خَضْراء /khađrâ'/ (green) and حَسْنَاء /ħasnā'/ (beautiful) are خَضَر /khađar/ and حَسَن /ħasan/.