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Lesson 49– الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ وَالأرْبَعُونَ أُسْلُوب الشَّرْط

Components of the Conditional Sentence - أُسْلوب الشَّرْطِ ومُكَوِّناتُه

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Translation

Conditional sentence

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If you work hard, people (will) respect you.

إنْ تَعْمَلْ بإتْقانٍ، يَحْتَرِمْكَ النَّاسُ.

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Wherever you study, you (will) learn quickly.

أَيْنَما تَدْرُسْ، تَتَعَلَّمْ بِسُرْعَةٍ.

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No matter how long you sleep, you (will) wake up late.

مَهْما تَنَمْ مُبَكِّرًا، تَسْتَيْقِظْ مُتَأَخِّرًا.

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If my father visits Turkey, he would love it much.

إنْ زَارَ أَبِي تُرْكِيا، فَسَيُحِبُّها كَثِيرًا.

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If you want your money, I (can) give you.

إذا تُريدُ مَالا، أمْنَحُكَ.

  • When we analyze the conditional sentence above, we will find that the conditional sentence in Arabic is made up of three main parts:

First: The conditional article:

Second: The conditional verb:

  • The conditional verbs are those in the sentence following directly the conditional article. In the examples above, the following are the conditional verbs: تَعْمَلْ - تَدْرُسْ - تَنَمْ - تُرِيدُ.
  • As we notice, the conditional verb is a present verb in the jussive (ĵazm) case. Even the verb زَارَ in the third example, although it is an indeclinable past verb with a fatħah vowel-ending, it is virtually in the jussive case, especially that the conditional article is one of the ĵazm particles that turns the present verb into the jussive.
  • Some of the conditional articles do not turn the present verb into the jussive. In this case, the verb is declinable as in the following example: إذا تُريدُ مَالاً أُعْطِيكَ.
  • The conditional article إذا is an article that does not turn the verb into jussive. We notice that the conditional verb has a đammah vowel-ending, not a sukūn as in the jussive case. This also applies to the other three sentences.

The answer to the condition:

  • which is the result depending on the condition. The verb in this part of the conditional sentence comes also in the jussive case with a sukūn vowel-ending when the conditional article is one of the ĵazm ones. This is clear in the following three examples, as the verbs in the answer to the condition are:

تَسْتَيْقِظْ

تَتَعَلَّمْ

يَحْتَرِمْكَ

Verb

(you) wake up

(you) learn

(people) respect you

Meaning

  • The verbs above are in the jussive case because the conditional articles are ĵazm ones.
  • In the forth examples, the conditional article is not a ĵazm one. This is why the verbs of the conditional sentences أَمْنَحُكَ - تُرِيدُ have a đammah vowel-ending.
  • N.B.: many of the conditional particles give the present or the future meaning to the past verbs, so we translate them in present or in future verbs as follows:

If angels come, devils (will) go.

إذا حضرتِ المَلائِكَة، ذهبتِ الشَّيَاطِين .

//Idhā ħadarat il-malā’ikatu, dhahabat ish-shayāŧīnu//

If my father visits Turkey, he would love it much.

إنْ زَارَ أَبِي تُرْكِيا فَسَيُحِبُّها كَثِيرًا

//in zara abī turkiyā, fa-sayuħibbuhā kathīran//

Who visits Egypt (will) enjoys its fine weather.

مَنْ زارَ مِصْرَ، اِسْتَمْتَعَ بَجَوِّها الجَمِيلِ .

//man zāra miŝra, istamtaξa bi-ĵawwihā al-ĵamīl-i//