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Lesson 49– الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ وَالأرْبَعُونَ

The Conditional Sentence -أُسْلُوب الشَّرْط

Conditional articles that turn the conditional verb into jussive - أدوات الشرط الجازمة  

  • In the previous parts we learnt the components of the conditional sentence: the conditional article, the conditional verb and the answer to the condition. We also learnt that the verb of the conditional sentence may be a present verb and sometimes may be past. This also applies to the verb of the answer to the condition. View the following four examples:


Conditional sentence

If people do their duties, the country (will) progresses and develops.

إنْ يَقُمِ النَّاسُ بِوَاجِبَاتِهِم، تتقَدَّمِ البَلدُ وتَتَطَوَّرْ.

He who visits Egypt (will) enjoys its fine weather.

مَنْ زارَ مِصْرَ، اِسْتَمْتَعَ بَجَوِّها الجَمِيلِ.

Who respects his professor will be respected by his friends.

مَنْ يَحْتَرِمْ أسْتاذَهُ، يَحْتَرِمْهُ أصْدِقَاؤُهُ.

  • From the examples above, we notice that the conditional verb may be a present verb in the ĵazm case with a sukūn vowel-ending, or an indeclinable past verb in a virtual ĵazm case. This is because the conditional article is a ĵazm one.
  • We will discuss this last point in this part. We will get to know the conditional ĵazm articles.
  • There are 21 conditional ĵazm articles, including three particle إنْ – إذْما - أمَّا. All the other articles are nouns, each of which has a meaning as in the following table:





Article lesson image

If you study your lessons, you (will) succeed.

إنْ تُذاكِرْ دُرُوسَكَ، تَنْجَحْ.


إنْ lesson image

Anyone who steals (shall) goes to prison.

مَنْ يَسْرِقْ، يدْخُلِ السِّجْنَ.

“Man” (any one) is used for animate, it means “anyone”

مَنْ lesson image

Any money you spend on the poor, you will get more in return.

ما تُنْفِقْ مِنْ مالٍ للْفُقْراء، تُرْزَقْ بَأَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ.

“mā” (any …) is used for inanimate, it means “any (thing)”

ما lesson image

For any good deeds you do, you will be rewarded.

مَهْما تَفْعَلْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ، تَجِدْهُ.

“mahmā” (no matter what) is used for inanimate, it means “anything”

مَهْما lesson image

Whenever you punish the student, he gets more violent.

مَتَى تُعاقِبِ التِّلْمِيذَ، يَكْثُرْ عُنْفُهُ.

“mattā” (whenever) indicates time. It means “at any time/ whenever”

مَتَى lesson image

Whenever you feel pain, you visit the doctor.

أَيَّانِ تَشْعُرْ بِالألَم، تَذْهَبْ إلَى الطَّبِيبِ.


It indicates time. It means “at any time/whenever”

أَيَّان lesson image

Wherever Muhammad meets his teacher, he greets him.

أَيْنَما يَجِدْ مُحَمَّدٌ أُسْتَاذَهُ، يُسَلِّمْ عَلَيْهِ.

“Aynamā” (wherever) indicates place. It means “in any place/ wherever”

أَيْنَما lesson image

Wherever Khalid travels, he goes shopping.

حَيْثُمَا يُسَافِرْ خَالِدٌ، يَتَسَوَّقْ.

“ħaythumā” (wherever) indicates place. It means “in any place/ wherever”

حَيْثُما lesson image

Wherever you hear the call to prayers, you should pray.

أَنَّى تسْمَعِ الأذانَ، تُصَلِّ.

“annā” (wherever) indicates place. It also means “in any place”

أَنَّى lesson image

Anything that hurts you, you should be aware of.

أيُّ شَيْءٍ يُؤْذِكَ مَرَّةً، تَحْذَرْهُ.

“Ay” (any …) its meaning is determined in accordance with the noun annexed to it.