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Lesson 46 – الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ وَالأرْبَعُونَ

Pronouns (3 of 5) – الضَّمَائرُ (٣ من ٥)

The Accusative Attached Pronoun - ضَّمير النَصْبِ المُتَّصِل

Attached Pronoun as a Subject of Nominal Sentence after indeed and its sisters (إَنَّ وَأَخَواتهَا)

  إنَّ – أنَّ – كأنَّ – لكنَّ – لأنَّ – ليت – لعل

  • We learnt before that these particles precede the nominal sentence and turn its subject from nominative case to accusative case. If the subject is an evident declinable noun it will be signed (originally) with Fatħah. If it’s indeclinable it will not be changed, but it will be considered in place of accusative, thus are the attached pronouns that we are learning in this lesson. The following table summarizes them:
  • From the above mentioned table we learn the following:
    • Unlike the direct object pronoun, we never use with the third person of these pronouns the (hā’ هـ) signed with Kasrah, because none of the particles is ending with yā’ or Kasrah.
    • For the first person (singular or plural) we have two versions, one with an additional Nūn and one without it. This in the Arabic rhetoric is used to make more assurance of the meaning of (indeed).
    • With the pronoun related to the 1st. person singular, the Nūn of protection (that we studied earlier in this lesson) is an optional for all of these particles except for (layta لَيْتَ ) that cannot be used without that Nūn, i.e. we say (laytanī لَيْتَنِي) and it’s not correct to say (laytī لَيْتِي). Regarding (laξalla لَعَلَّ) it’s rarely used without the Nūn, but anyhow it is allowed to use it with or without it.
  • Now let’s see some examples for these pronouns with indeed and its sisters:

picture

Translation

Example

Corresponding attached pronoun

Detached pronoun

Type of pronoun

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I went early, but I didn’t find a seat

ذَهَبْتُ مُبَكِّرًا لَكِنَّني (لَكِنِّي) لَمْ أَجِدْ مِقْعَدًا.

ـِي(ـني)

أَنَا

1st. person

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I know that I arrived early.

أَعْلَمُ أَنَّني (أّنِّي) وَصَلْتُ مُبَكِّرًا.

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We live together as if we are one family.

نَعِيشُ مَعًا كَأنَّنا (كَأَنَّا) أُسْرَةٌ وَاحِدةٌ.

ـنا (ـا)

نَحْنُ

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If only we assisted the previous lesson!

ليتَنا حَضَرْنَا الدَّرْسَ السَابِقَ.

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I hope you can help me.

لَعَلَّكَ تَسْتَطِيعُ مُساعَدَتي.

ـكَ

أنتَ

2nd. person

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My brother told me that you are from France.

ذَكَرَ لِي أخي أّنَّكِ مِنْ فرنسا.

ـكِ

أَنْتِ

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I know that you are brothers.

أَعْلَمُ أَنَّكُما أَخَوانِ.

ـكُما

أنْتُما

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It’s said that you will travel today.

قِيلَ إنَّكُمْ سَتُسافِرونَ الْيَومَ.

ـكُمْ

أنْتُمْ

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You speak Arabic as if you are Arabic.

تتحدَّثْنَ العربِيَّةّ كَأَنَّكُنَّ منَ الْعَرَبِ.

ـكُنَّ

أَنْتُنَّ

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If only he has not came today!

ليتهُ مَا جاءَ الْيَوْمَ.

ـهُ

هُوَ

3rd. person

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Take these books, I hope it will be useful to you.

خُذْ هذِهِ الكُتُبَ لَعَلَّها تَنْفَعُكَ.

ـها

هِيَ

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They did not go because they got up late.

لمْ يذهبا لأنهما اسْتَيْقَظا متأَخِريْنِ.

ـهُما

هُما

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They are my friends.

إنَّهُمْ أَصْدِقائي.

ـهُمْ

هُمْ

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Do you know that they are at home?

أَتعْلَمُ أَنَّهنَّ في البَيْتِ؟

ـهُنَّ

هُنَّ