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Lesson 46 – الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسُ وَالأرْبَعُونَ

Pronouns (3 of 5) – الضَّمَائرُ (٣ من ٥)

The Accusative Attached Pronoun - ضَّمير النَصْبِ المُتَّصِل

The Accusative Attached Pronoun in position of direct object

  • In the table mentioned below there is a full division of the accusative attached personal pronouns, when they represent direct object suffixes connected to the verb:

 

Singular مُفْرَدٌ

Dual مُثَنَّى

Plural جَمْعٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculine

مُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine

مُؤَنَّثٌ

3rd. person

غَائِبٌ

ـهُ (ـهِ)

ـهَا

ـهُمَا (ـهِما)

ـهُمْ (ـهِمْ)

ـهُنَّ (ـهِنَّ)

يَعْرِفُهُ

يُعْطِيهِ

يَعْرِفُها

يُعْطِيها

يَعْرِفُهُما

يُعْطِيهِما

يَعْرِفُهُمْ

يُعْطِيهِم

يَعْرِفُهُنَّ

يُعْطِيهِنَّ

2nd. Person

مُخَاطَبٌ

ـكَ

ـكِ

ـكُمَا

ـكُمْ

ـكُنَّ

يَعْرِفُكَ

يَعْرِفُكِ

يَعْرِفُكُما

يَعْرِفُكُمْ

يَعْرِفُكُنَّ

1st. person

مُتَكَلِّمٌ

ـني

ـنا

يَعْرِفُني

يَعْرِفُنا

  • If we look attentively at the above mentioned table we may have the following observations:

First:

  • When the accusative pronoun is attached to the verb, this does not prevent the grammatical sign of the verb to appear at the end of the verb, i.e. if the verb is in the indicative case (Rafξ) it should be signed originally with đammah. This đammah appears on the last letter of the verb preceding the pronoun e.g.

transliteration

Translation

example

The case of the verb

Yaξrifunā

he knows us

يَعْرِفُنا

Indicative

An yaξrifanā

To know us

أَنْ يَعْرِفَنا

Accusative

Lam yaξrifnā

He didn’t know us

لَمْ يَعْرِفْنا

Jussive

Second:

  • The pronoun of the 1st. person singular masculine (anā) has to be preceded by letter (n) Nūn which is called in Arabic نون الوقاية meaning the Nūn of protection, this is because it protects the ending of the verb from being signed with Kasrah, (the Kasrah is the only available sign before a long vowel (ī) which is the main pronoun for the 1st. person s. m.). The verb cannot be signed with Kasrah, because the Kasrah is characteristic of the nouns (verbs can be indicative, accusative or jussive, and never being genitive).
  • The result of this conflict is to put the “Nūn of protection”, after the grammatical sign of the verb as in the following example:

transliteration

Translation

example

The case of the verb

Yaξrifunī

he knows me

يَعْرِفُني

Indicative

An yaξrifanī

To know me

أَنْ يَعْرِفَني

Accusative

Lam yaξrifnī

He didn’t know me

لَمْ يَعْرِفْني

Jussive

Third:

Fourth:

  • We can notice here that these pronouns (accusative attached pronouns) are available attachments to both present and past verb. This is unlike the nominative attached pronouns which have different forms for each tense.
  • As we said earlier above that this kind of pronoun has no affect on the endings of the verb, so the past verb remains indeclinable on the Fatħah when it’s connected to these pronouns (while the nominative pronouns make the past verb indeclinable on sukūn, and one of them makes it indeclinable on đammah) please see these examples:

Example

Translation

Transliteration

سَأَلَني

He asked me

Sa’alanī

سَأَلَنا

He asked us

Sa’alanā

سَأَلَكَ

He asked you

Sa’alaka

سَأَلَكِ

He asked you

Sa’alaki

سَأَلَكُما

He asked you

Sa’alakumā

سَأَلَكُمْ

He asked you

Sa’alakum

سَأَلَكُنَّ

He asked you

Sa’alakunna

سَأَلَهُ

He asked her

Sa’alahu

سَأَلَها

He asked her

Sa’alahā

سَأَلَهُما

He asked them

Sa’alahumā

سَأَلَهُمْ

He asked them

Sa’alahum

سَأَلَهُنَّ

He asked them

Sa’alahunna

  • It is also noticeable that for the past verb we never use the Kasrah sign for the letter (hā’) of the third person that we mentioned in the previous point, just because the past verb is originally ended with Fatħah.

 

Translation

Example

Corresponding attached pronoun

Detached pronoun

Type of pronoun

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The teacher taught me to help people.

عَلَّمَنِي الأُسْتَاذُ مُسَاعَدَةَ النَّاسِ.

ي

أَنا

First person

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The trainer made us sit on the first row.

أجْلَسَنا المُدَرِّبُ فِي الصَّفِّ الأَوَّلِ.

نا

نَحْنُ

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Did your friends visit you yesterday?

هَلْ زَارَكَ الأَصْدِقَاءُ أَمْسِ؟

كَ

أَنْتَ

Second person

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Did your mother teach you how to cook?

هَلْ عَلَّمَتْكِ الأُمُّ كَيْفَ تَطْبُخِينَ؟

كِ

أَنْتِ

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Where did the director send you?

أَيْنَ أَرْسَلَكُما المُدِيرُ؟

كُما

أَنْتُمَا

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Did the boys help you at work?

هَلْ سَاعَدَكُم الأَوْلادُ فِي العَمَلِ؟

كُمْ

أَنْتُمْ

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Did the girls help you cook?

هَل ساعدتْكُنَّ البَناتُ فِي المَطْبَخِ؟

كُنَّ

أَنْتُنَّ

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Did you meet Muhammad today?

No, I did not meet him.

هَلْ قابَلْتَ مُحَمَّداً اليَوْمَ؟

لا ما قابَلْتُهُ.

هُ

هُوَ

Third person

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Have you visited Mecca?

Yes, I visited it.

هَلْ زُرْتَ مَكَّةَ؟

نَعَمْ، زُرْتُها.

ها

هِيَ

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Did you eat the two chickens?

Yes, I ate them.

هَلْ أَكَلْتَ الدَّجَاجَتَيْنِ؟

نَعَم، أَكَلْتُهُما.

هُمَا

هُمَا

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Did you understand the two lessons?

Yes, I understood them.

هَلْ فَهمْتَ الدَّرْسَيْنِ؟

نَعَمْ ، فَهِمْتُهُما.

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Do you love people?

Yes, I love them much.

هَلْ تُحِبُّونَ النَّاسَ؟

نَعَمْ، نُحِبُّهُم كَثيرًا.

هُم

هُمْ

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Does Ibrahim love his daughters?

Yes, He loves them.

هَل إبْراهِيمُ يُحِبُّ بَنَاتِهِ؟

نَعَم، هُو يُحِبُّهُنَّ.

هُنَّ

هُنَّ

  • These were the rules of the accusative attached pronoun when it represents a direct object suffix in a verbal sentence. After the exercises we will learn the rules of the accusative pronoun when it falls as a subject of nominal sentence preceded by indeed and its sisters (إَنَّ وَأَخَواتهَا).