Lesson 45 – الدَّرْسُ الْخامِسُ والأرْبَعُونَ

Pronouns (2 of 5) – الضَّمَائرُ (٢ من ٥)

The nominative attached pronouns – ضَّمَائِرُ الرَّفْع المُتَّصِلَةُ

The Nominative Pronouns attached to present verb

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  • Now let’s study the Arabic nominative attached pronoun as an agent of present verb in the following table:

 

Singular    مُفْرَدٌ

Masculineمُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine مُؤَنَّثٌ

3rd. person غَائِبٌ

 

2nd. Personمُخَاطَبٌ

 

ـِيـن

تَكْتُبِينَ

1st. personمُتَكَلِّمٌ

 

 

 

 

Dual    مُثَنَّى

Plural   جَمْعٌ

Masculineمُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine مُؤَنَّثٌ

Masculineمُذَكَّرٌ

Feminine مُؤَنَّثٌ

3rd. person غَائِبٌ

ـانِ

يَكْتُبانِ

ـونَ

يَكْتُبونَ

ـْنَ

يَكْتُبْنَ

2nd. Personمُخَاطَبٌ

ـانِ

تَكْتُبانِ

ـونَ

تَكْتُبٌونَ

ـْنَ

تَكْتُبْنَ

1st. personمُتَكَلِّمٌ

 

 

 

 

 

  • The first thing that we learn from this table is that that there is no nominative attached pronoun as agent suffix of the present verb for the most doers. We learnt in a previous lesson tackling the present conjugation that we use prefixes to refer the doer of many pronouns, without using suffixes.
  • We can divide these above mentioned pronouns in two groups:

First: the pronouns of the five verbs (Lesson 35), which are:

The 2nd. Person singular feminine

ـِيـنَ

تَكْتُبِينَ

The 2nd. person dual

ـانِ

تَكْتُبانِ

The 2nd. Person plural masculine

ـونَ

تَكْتُبٌونَ

The 3rd. person dual

ـانِ

يَكْتُبانِ

The 3rd. person plural masculine

ـونَ

يَكْتُبونَ

  • This group of pronouns are ended with (n) letter/Nūn/. This /Nūn/ as we learnt earlier (in lesson 37) will be subject to omission in the accusative and jussive case, so our grammarians say that this /Nūn/ is not a part of the pronoun, rather it’s just a sign of the indicative case of the present verb, and the omission of it is the grammatical sign of the accusative and the jussive cases, and the omission of the same /Nūn/ is the sign of the indeclension of the imperative verb.

The second group of these pronouns is the unique pronoun related to the feminine plural:

The 2nd. person feminine plural

ـْنَ

تَكْتُبْنَ

The 3rd. person feminine plural

يَكْتُبْنَ

  • In this category we find that the present verb is exceptionally indeclinable on sukūn, and the pronoun (Nūn) is indeclinable on Fatħah whatever the grammatical case of the present verb is (all this is detailed in the lesson tackling the present verb conjugation).
  • Let’s summarize now the rules of the nominative attached pronouns:
    • They are only to be attached to a verb and they occupy the position of the agent of that verb.
    • They have certain forms when attached to the past verb and other forms when attached to the present or imperative verb.
    • For the present verb we do not depend only on the pronouns to make the conjugation but we also use certain prefixes which are studied in the present verb lesson.
    • All these pronouns are indeclinable and some of them can change the pronunciation of its ending for phonetic (non- grammatical) factor.
  • After this summary it would be convenient to see some examples of the nominative attached pronoun.

Picture

Translation

Example

Pronoun

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You are walking in the street.

أنتِ تَسِيرِينَ في الشَارِعِ.

/anti tasīrīna fī ash-shāriξi

ـِيـنَ

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You are playing football.

أَنْتُمَا تَلْعَبَانِ الْكُرَةَ.

Antumā talξabāni al-kurata

ـانِ

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The two boys go to school.

الوَلَدَانِ يَذْهَبَانِ إلَى الْمدْرَسَةِ.

Al-waladāni yadhhabāni ilā al-madrasati

ـانِ

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Why do you stand here?

لِمَاذا تقِفونَ هُنَا؟

/limādhā taqifūna hunā/

ـونَ

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They are cooking the food.

همْ يطْبُخونَ الطَّعامَ.

/hum yaŧbukhūna aŧ-ŧaξāma/

ـونَ

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You travel by the plane.

أَنتنَّ تُسافِرْنَ بالطَائِرَةِ.

/Antunna tusāfirna biŧ-ŧâ’irati/

ـْنَ

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They did not go to the restaurant.

هُنَّ لَمْ يَذْهَبْنَ إلى المَطْعَمِ.

Hunna lam yadhhabna ilā al maŧξami

ـْنَ

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