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Lesson 37 الدَّرْسُ السَّابِعُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ

Declension of the Five Verbsإِعْرَابُ الأَفْعَالِ الْخَمْسَةِ

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

·         As we learnt in Lesson 35, the Five Verbs الأفْعَال الخَمْسَة are any present verb suffixed by أَلِف الاثْنَيْن alif al-ithnayn (dual alif suffix) /-ān/, وَاو الْجَمَاعَة wāw al-ĵamāξah (masculine plural wāw suffix) /-ūn/ or /-īn/, or يَاء الْمُخَاطَبَة yā' al-mukhâŧabah (second person feminine singular yā’ suffix) /-īn/.

Examples:

الْجُمْلَةُ

Sentence

الْفِعْلُ

Verb

الضَّمِيرُ

Pronoun

English

Arabic

People go to the market to buy vegetables and fruits

النَّاسُ يَذْهَبُونَ إِلَى السُّوقِ، وَيَشْتَرُونَ الفَاكِهَةَ وَالخَضْرَاوَاتِ.

يَذْهَبُونَ

(They) go

يَشْتَرُونَ

(They) buy

هُمْ

Hum

جَمْعُ الْمُذَكَّرُ

Masc. pl.

You love good and hate evil

أَنْتُمْ تُحِبُّون الْخَيْرَ، وَتَكْرَهُونَ الشَّرَّ.

تُحِبُّون

(you plural) like

تَكْرَهُونَ

(you plural) hate

أَنْتُمْ

Antum

The two students live in a single flat

الطَّالِبَانِ يَسْكُنَانِ فِي شَقَّةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ.

يَسْكُنَانِ

(They) live

هُمَا

Humā

الْمُثَنَّى

Dual

You are two students studying much

أنْتُمَا طَالِبانِ تَدْرُسَانِ كَثِيرًا.

تَدْرُسَانِ

(you dual) study

أَنْتُمَا

antumā

You sleep much, Fatima

أَنْتِ تَنَامِينَ كَثِيرًا يَا فَاطِمَةُ.

تَنَامِينَ

(You feminine) sleep

أَنْتِ

Anti

الْمُفْرَدَةُ الْمُخَاطَبَةُ

2nd person, fem. sing.

 

تَنَامِينَ

تَدْرُسَانِ

يَسْكُنَانِ

تَكْرَهُونَ

الْفِعْلُ

Verb

tanam-īn-a

tadrus-ān-i

yaskun-ān-i

takrah-ūn-a

Translite-ration

sleep

study

live

hate

Meaning

تُحِبُّونَ

يَشْتَرُونَ

يَذْهَبُونَ

الْفِعْلُ

Verb

 

tuhib-ūn-a

yashtar-ūn-a

yadhhab-ūn-a

Translite-ration

 

Love

Buy

go

Meaning

 

 

·         All the above verbs end with ـونَ  (-ūn), ـانِ (-ān) and ـينَ (-īn) and that is why the declension marks or vowels of declensionحَرَكَاتُ الإِعْرَابِ (đammah, fatħah and sukūn) do not appear on the case-ending of these verbs.

تَنَامُ

تَدْرُسُ

يَسْكُنُ

Verb

sleep

study

live

Meaning

 

·         So the declension marks of the Five Verbs are different from the declension marks of the sound or defective verbs.

Workers wake up early and go to work happily

يَسْتَيْقِظُ العُمَّالُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ مُبَكِّرينَ، ثُمَّ يَذْهَبُونَ إِلَى عَمَلِهمْ وَهُمْ سُعَدَاءُ.

They work hard

فَيَعْمَلُونَ بِجِدٍّ وَاِجْتِهادٍ.

They do not neglect in their duty

وَلا يُقَصِّرُونَ فِي وَاجِباتِهمْ.

They know that they do a duty to the community

فَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُؤَدُّونَ وَاجِبًا تِجَاهَ الْمُجْتَمَعِ.

When they come back home, they take rest after an exhausting day

وَحِينَ يَعُودُونَ إِلَى بُيُوتِهِمْ فَإنَّهُمْ يَسْتَرِيحُونَ مِنْ تَعَبِ الْيَوْمِ.

They thank Allah for His help

وَيَشْكُرُونَ اللَّه عَلَى الْمُسَاعَدةِ.

 

يَشْكُرُونَ

يَسْتَرِيحُونَ

يَعُودُونَ

يُؤَدُّونَ

Yashkur-ūn-a

Yastarīh-ūn-a

Yaξud-ūn-a

Yu'add-ūn-a

thank

take rest

come back

do

يَعْلَمُونَ

يُقَصِّرُونَ

يَعْمَلُونَ

يَذْهَبُونَ

Ya'lam-ūn-a

Yuqassir-ūn-a

Yaξmal-ūn-a

Yadhhab-ūn-a

Know

neglect

work

Go

1-   In the Rafξ رَفْع case, because they are not preceded by any Naŝb نَصْب particles (أَنْ، لَنْ), Ĵazm جَزْم particles, such as Prohibitive لَمْ ("لَمْ " النَّاهِيَة) or Prohibitive لا ("لا" النَّاهِيَة)

2-   The mark of Rafξ رَفْع of these verbs is the Nūn نُون /-n/ at the end of the verb, while the marks of Naŝb نَصْب and Ĵazm جَزْم is the omission of the Nūn.