Lesson 45 – الدَّرْسُ الْخامِسُ والأرْبَعُونَ
Pronouns (2 of 5) – الضَّمَائرُ (٢ من ٥)
The nominative attached pronouns – ضَّمَائِرُ الرَّفْع المُتَّصِلَةُ
Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ
- We studied in the previous lesson the separate (detached) pronouns, and now we are going to start learning the attached pronouns In-Shā'-Allâh (God willing).
- The personal pronoun can be attached to:
- A verb: In this case it can be an agent (doer) of the verb, e.g. كَتَبْتُ (I wrote), or a direct object of the verb, e.g. قَابَلَنِي (he met me), also we may find both of these types of pronoun coming attached to one verb, e.g. عَرَفْنَاهُمْ (we knew them).
- A noun: In this case the pronoun is only an annexed noun مُضَافٌ إِلَيهِ , so it is in place of genitive noun (Please note that we can't say "the pronoun is in genitive case" because it is indeclinable noun, so we say it is in place of genitive noun) e.g. كِتَابُكَ (your book), مَدْرَسَتُنَا (our school).
- Some particles: As:
- Exclusion (اسْتِثْناء /istithnā'/) particles: (غَيْر – سِوَى – إِلا – حَاشَا – عَدَا – خَلا )
- Prepositions: (مِنْ – إِلَى – عَنْ – عَلَى – في – الباء – الكاف – اللام)
- Some annular particles like: (إِنَّ وَأَخَوَاتُها indeed and its sisters) and (كَانَ وَأخَوَاتُهَا to be and its sisters).
- In these cases the attached pronouns can be in accusative or genitive place according to the affect of the particle which precedes it.
- In addition to this division of the attached pronoun (الضَّمير المُتَّصِل /ađ-đamīr al muttaŝil), there is another division according to grammatical position of the pronoun i.e. the position which it occupies in the sentence (it can be in a nominative place (مَحَلّ رَفْع /maħall rafξ), accusative place (مَحَلّ نَصْب / maħall naŝb) or genitive place (مَحَلّ جَرّ / maħall djarr)).
- In this lesson we cannot study all the divisions of the attached pronouns, so we will learn just one of its three types, which is the nominative attached pronoun (ضَّمير الرَّفْع المُتَّصِل / đamīr ar-rafξ al muttaŝil).
- This type of pronouns cannot be attached to a noun or to a particle; because if it is attached to any of them it will not be a nominative pronoun, rather it will be an accusative or genitive pronoun. These we will study later In-Shā'-Allâh (God willing).
- Therefore, it can appear attached to verbs only, in a position of the doer of these verbs. We will study these pronouns when they are attached to past verbs, and when they are attached to present verbs In-Shā'-Allâh (God willing).
- N.B.: the pronouns attached to the imperative are the same like those attached to the present, but they defer in the grammatical endings that are not to be studied at this point.
- Therefore, we will study following parts: