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Lesson 39 – الدَّرْسُ التَّاسِعُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ بِنَاءُ الْفِعْلِ الْمَاضِي

Introduction - مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In this lesson we will learn the past verb in more detail than we did in Lesson 28 and Lesson 29. We will learn the cases of the past verb indeclension.
  • In Lesson 25, "Declinable and Indeclinable Words" we learnt that the original rule about the verb is indeclension – that is, verbs, except for the present verb, are often indeclinable.
  • We also learnt in Lesson 38 the indeclension cases of the present verb and how its case-ending changes from đammah (ـُ) to fatħah  (ـَ) or sukūn (ـْ).
  • We also learnt in Lesson 38 that the present verb may be indeclinable by a fixed sukūn when it is suffixed by the feminine plural pronoun نُونُ النِّسْوَةِ (nūn an-niswah) such as خَرَجْنَ (kharaĵ-na) or when it is suffixed by the emphatic nūn نُونُ التَّوْكِيد (or nūn at-tawkid) such as لَنَخْرُجَنَّ (lanakhruĵa-nna).
  • As we leant before in Lesson 25, ""Declinable and Indeclinable Words," that there are signs for declension, namely:

السُّكُونُ

(ـْ)

Sukūn

الْكَسْرَةُ

(ـِ)

Kasrah

الْفَتْحَةُ

(ـَ)

Fatħah

الضَّمَّةُ

(ـُ)

Đammah 

Sign

الْجَزْمُ

Ĵazm

The jussive

الْجَرُّ

Ĵarr

The genitive

النَّصْبُ

Naŝb

The accusative

الرَّفْعُ

Rafξ

The nominative

Case

  • There are also signs for indeclension. However, indeclension has conditions that should be met. This will be clearer when we will discuss the signs of indeclinable past verb later in this lesson. So we will learn the following:
  • The indeclinable past verbs ending with a fixed fatħah (ـَ), as shown in the following examples:

Picture

Meaning

Example

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The director attended the annual conference on environment.

حَضَرَ الْمُدِيرُ الْمُؤْتَمَرَ السَّنَوِيَّ لِلْبِيئَةِ.

/ħađara al-mudīru al-mu'tamar al-sanawī lilbī'ah/

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The female director attended the school meeting.

حَضَرَتِ الْمُدِيرَةُ اِجْتِمَاعَ الْمَدْرَسَةِ.

/ħađarat al-mudīratu iĵtimāξa al-madrasati/

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The two students attended the lesson in the class.

الطَّالِبَانِ حَضَرَا الدَّرْسَ فِي الْفَصْلِ.

/aŧ-ŧâlibani ħađarā al-darsa fi al-faŝli/

  • The indeclinable past verbs ending with a fixed sukūn (ـْ), as in the following examples:

Picture

English meaning

Example

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Have you written the homework, Marwan?

هَلْ كَتَبْتَ الْوَاجِبَ يَا مَرَوَانُ ؟

/hal katabta al-wāĵiba ya Marawan?/

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Have you drunk milk, Fatimah?

هَلْ شَرِبْتِ الْحَلِيبَ يَا فَاطِمَةُ ؟

/hal sharibti al-ħalība ya Faŧimah?/

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I gave my brother a gift.

أَنَا أَعْطَيْتُ أَخِي هَدِيَّةً.

/ana aξŧaytu akhī hadiyatan/

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We studied Arabic in Yemen.

نَحْنُ دَرَسْنَا الْعَرَبِيَّةَ فِي الْيَمَنِ.

/Naħnu darasna al-ξarabiya fi al-yaman/

  • The indeclinable past verbs ending with fixed đammah  ضَمَّةٌ (ـُ), as shown in the following examples:

Picture

Meaning

Example

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Students got out of the class.

الطُّلابُ خَرَجُوا مِنَ الْفَصْلِ.

/Aŧ-ŧullābu kharaĵū min al-faŝl/

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Employees completed their work.

الْمُوَظَّفُونَ أَكْمَلُوا الْعَمَلَ.

/Al-muwađhaffūn akmalū al-ξamal/