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Lesson 37 الدَّرْسُ السَّا بِعُ وَالثَّلاثُونَ إ ِ ع ْ ر َ اب ُ الأ َ ف ْ ع َ الِ الْخ َ م ْ س َ ةِ

The Five Verbs in Ĵazm جَزْم case

·         The third case of the Five Verbs declension is the Ĵazm جَزْم case. In this lesson we learnt that there are two Ĵazm particles: Negative lam "لَمْ" النَّافِيَة and Prohibitive "لا" النَّاهِيَة. We also learnt that the Ĵazm mark in the sound verbs is the Sukūn (ـْـ). But the Ĵazm mark in the Five Verbs is the omission of the Nūn. Consider the following examples:

Allah says: "Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you"

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: "وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلاقٍ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإيَّاكُمْ"

Allah says: "Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils)"

قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: "وَلا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلا"

May people have not understood the truth of Islam so far

كَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ لَمْ يَفْهَمُوا حَقِيقَةَ الإِسْلامِ حَتَّى الآن.

Why have you not performed al-Maghrib Prayer so far

لِمَاذَا لَمْ تُصَلُّوا المَغْرِبَ حَتَّى الآنَ.

The boys have not gone to the sports club today

الأوْلادُ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا إِلَى النَّادِي الْيَوْمَ.

 

يَذْهبُوا

تُصَلُّوا

يَفْهَمُوا

تَقْرَبُوا

تَقْتُلُوا

Verb

yadhhab-ū

tusall-ū

yafham-ū

taqrab-ū

taqtul-ū

Transliteration

go

pray

understand

come nigh

kill

Meaning

·         In the above verbs, the Nūn is omitted because they are from the Five Verbs whose Naŝb and Ĵazm marks are the omission of the Nūn.

يَذْهَب

يَفْهَمْ

تَقْرَبْ

تَقْتُلْ

Ordinary verbs in the Ĵazm case

yadhhab

yafham

taqrab

taqtul

Meaning

يَذْهَبُوا

يَفْهَمُوا

تَقْرَبُوا

تَقْتُلُوا

Five Verbs in the Ĵazm case

yadhhab-ū

yafham-ū

taqrab-ū

taqtul-ū

Transliteration

·         In a nutshell, the Five verbs have to forms: with the Nūn (in the Rafξ رَفْع case) and without (omission of) the Nūn in cases of Naŝb نَصْب and Ĵazm جَزْم.