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Lesson 24 – الدَّرْسُ الرَّابِعُ وَالْعِشْرُونَ الاسْمُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ

Introduction – مُقَدِّمَةٌ

  • In this lesson, we will learn about the Demonstrative Pronouns أَسْماءُ الإِشَارَةِ and Relative Pronouns الأَسْمَاءُ الْمَوْصُولَةُ in detail.
  • In previous lessons we have learnt the basics of the Demonstrative Pronouns (see Lesson 1, Lesson 2, Lesson 6, Lesson 7|L007_001.html||, Lesson 13, & Lesson 18) and Relative Pronouns in (Lesson 9, & Lesson 12).
  • "A Demonstrative Pronoun is a noun that represents the near or the distant object.
    • We know that in English "This" is used to point to the near singular object and "That" is used for the distant object and "These" is used to point towards the near Plural Objects and "Those" is used for the Distant Objects. However different nouns are not used for the Dual (in English language) and there is no difference of gender i.e., the same nouns are used for the masculine as well as the feminine.
    •  In Arabic however, different Demonstrative Pronouns are used for singular, dual and plural objects. Similarly different Nouns are used for the masculine as well as the feminine.

English

Transliteration

Gender/Number

Arabic

Demonstrative

Nouns

This

Hādhā

Masculine/Singular

هَـٰذَا

أَسْمَاءُ الإِشَارَةِ (لِلْقَرِيبِ)

Hādhihi

Feminine/Singular

هَـٰذِهِ

These two

Hādhāni

Masculine/Dual

هَـٰذَانِ

Hātāni

Feminine/Dual

هَـٰاتَانِ

These all

Hā’ulā’i

Masculine & Feminine/ Plural

هَـٰؤُلاءِ

That

Dhālika

Masculine/Singular

ذَلِكَ

أَسْمَاءُ الإِشَارَةِ (لِلْبَعِيدِ)

Tilka

Feminine/Singular

تِلْكَ

Those two

Dhānika

Masculine/Dual

ذَانِكَ

Tānika

Feminine/Dual

تَانِكَ

Those all

'ulā’ika

Masculine & Feminine/ Plural

أُؤلَـٰئِكَ

    • Following are the examples for the Demonstrative Pronouns:
  • "A Relative Pronoun is a noun which refers or relates to some noun preceding it".
    • The Arabic Relative Pronouns have different forms for singular, dual and plural as well as for masculine and feminine.

English

Transliteration

Gender/Number

Arabic

Relative

Nouns

Who/That

Al-Ladhī

Masculine/Singular

الَّذِي

الأَسْمَاءُ الْمَوْصُولَةُ

Al-Latī

Feminine/Singular

الَّتِي

Those two/Who (dual)

Al-ladhāni

Masculine/Dual

اللَّذَانِ

Al-latāni

Feminine/Dual

اللَّتَانِ

Those all/Who (all)

Al-ladhīna

Masculine/ Plural

الَّذِينَ

Al-Lā’ī

Feminine/Plural

اللائِي

 Let’s take some examples of the Relative Pronouns: