Lesson 16 - الدَّرْسُ السَّادِسَ عَشَرَ

Adverbial Time Object - ظَرْفُ زَمَانٍ

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  • In this part of the lesson we will learn a new Arabic grammatical term, In-Shā’-Allâh (God-Willing). We will learn about the form of an Arabic noun which indicates the time when an action has occurred. This type of nouns is called the "Adverbial Time Object - ظَرْفُ زَمَانٍ" or "The object of time – الْمَفْعُولُ فِيهِ ". In this part of the lesson we will learn about the vowel ending of these words as well as the words following them, In-Shā’-Allâh (God-Willing). There are different nouns used as Adverbial Time Objects and we will learn two of them in this part of the lesson which are:

English

Arabic

Before

قَبْلَ

After

بَعْدَ

  • These nouns are a type of Object; therefore they always take the accusative case with a /fatħah/. However they work as /Muđâf/ (possessed) therefore the nouns following them will take the genitive case e.g.:

English

Arabic

I entered the house after the prayer

دَخَلْتُ الْبَيْتَ بَعْدَ الصَّلاةِ.

I went to the school before Ahmad

ذَهَبْتُ إِلَى الْمَدْرَسَةِ قَبْلَ أَحْمَدَ.

  • Let’s take some more examples to understand this rule:

Picture

English

Arabic

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Muhammad entered into the room after a prayer.

دَخَلَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْغُرْفَةَ بَعْدَ صَلاةٍ.

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Ayesha went to the university before the lesson.

ذَهَبَتْ عَائِشَةُ إِلَى الْجَامِعَةِ قَبْلَ الدَّرْسِ.

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They (fem.) wrote the story after one week.

هُنَّ كَتَبْنَ الْقِصَّةَ بَعْدَ أُسْبُوعٍ.

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I went to hospital a month ago.

ذَهَبْتُ إِلَى الْمُسْتَشْفَى قَبْلَ شَهْرٍ.

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