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Lesson 88 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّامِنُ والثَّمانون

The Style of Request - أُسلوبُ الطَّلَبِ

The Form of the Negated Imperative (Prohibition)– أُسْلُوبُ النَّهْي وَطَريقَتُهُ

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  • The negated imperative is to ask the spoken to (المُخاطَب) to stop doing something. It is formed by conjugating the Arabic verb in the present with the spoken to and putting the verb after the prohibitive article (lā) لا النَّاهِيَة.
  • Consider the following examples:

Verb

English

Arabic

تَخْجَلْ

Do not be ashamed of poverty

لا تَخْجَلْ مِنَ الْفَقْرِ

تَسْتَسْلِمْ

Do not let yourself (do not yield) to the sickness

ولا تَسْتَسْلِمْ لِلْمَرَضِ

تَيْأَسْ

Despair not of the mercy of Allah

ولا تَيْأَسْ مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ

تَتَمّنَّ

And do not hope for death

ولا تَتَمّنَّ الْمَوتَ

  • The negated imperative in the above mentioned examples is addressed to the singular masculine of the spoken to المخاطَب المُفْرَد المُذَكَّر.
  • It can also be addressed to the feminine, dual, and plural of the second person (the spoken to), as in the following examples:
  • For the singular feminine:

Verb

English

Arabic

تُغْضِبي

Do not upset your husband, Fatima

لا تُغْضِبي زَوْجَكِ يا فاطِمَةُ

تَطْلُبِي

And do not ask him what he cannot do

ولا تَطْلُبِي مِنْهُ ما لايَسْتَطِيعُ

تَتَكَلَّمِي

And do not talk to him while he is angry

وَلا تَتَكَلَّمِي مَعَهُ وَهُو غَاضِبٌ

تَخْرُجِي

And do not get out of the house without his permission

وَلا تَخْرُجِي مِنْ الْبَيْتِ إلاَّ بِإذْنِهِ

  • For the dual:

Verb

English

Arabic

تَتَكَلَّما

Do not speak, but quietly

وَلا تَتَكَلَّما إلاَّ بِهِدُوء

تَغْضَبَا - تَخْتَلِفَا

Do not be angry, and do not disagree

ولا تَغْضَبَا ولا تَخْتَلِفَا

  • For the masculine plural:

Verb

English

Arabic

تَنْشَغِلُوا

Oh players, do not be distracted by your (personal) problems

أُيّها اللاعِبُونَ لا تَنْشَغِلُوا بِمَشاكِلِكُم

تَخْتَلِفُوا

Agree, and do not disagree, (so) you will win the match

اِتَّفِقُوا ولا تَخْتَلِفُوا، تَفُوزُوا بالْمُباراة

تَفَرَّقُوا

Be (unified as) one hand!, and do be not divided

كُونُوا يَدًا وَاحِدَةً ولا تَفَرَّقُوا

تَبْخَلُوا

And help each other, and be not niggardly among yourselves

وَساعِدُوا بَعْضَكُم ولا تَبْخَلُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِكُم

  • For the feminine plural:

Verb

English

Arabic

تَنْشَغِلْنَ

Oh female players, do not be distracted by your (personal) problems

أُيَّتُها اللاعِباتُ لا تَنْشَغِلْنَ بِمَشاكِلِكُنَّ

تَخْتَلِفْنَ

Agree, and do not disagree, (so) you will win the match

اِتَّفِقْنَ ولا تَخْتَلِفْنَ، تَفُزْنَ بالْمُباراة

تَفَرَّقْنَ

Be (unified as) one hand!, and do be not divided

كُنَّ يَدًا وَاحِدَةً، ولا تَفَرَّقْنَ

تَبْخَلْنَ

And help each other, and be not niggardly among yourselves

وَساعِدْن بَعْضَكُنَّ ولا تَبْخَلْنَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِكُنَّ

  • In all the above mentioned examples we notice that (lā) of the negated imperative لا النَّاهية can only precede the present verb, and it put it in the jussive case, and in the prohibitive meaning.

 

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