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Lesson 82 – الدَّرْسُ الثَّاني والثَّمانون

The vocative  -  الـنِّــدَاءُ

Vocative Particles and types of called noun – أَدَوَاتُ النِّدَاءِ وَأَقْسَامُ المُنَادَى

  • We learnt in the introduction that the vocative in Arabic is a special linguistic style, which has special particles, special forms, and a special way of declension.
  • The vocative structure consists of two essential parts as follows:

1-    The vocative article.

2-    The called noun which falls after the vocative article.

  • There is also another part of the vocative structure, but it is not evident in the structure; it is the supposed verb of call. The reason why we suppose this verb is that the called noun is originally a direct object of the virtual verb of call.
  • The vocative article:
  • There are seven vocative articles in Arabic, Three of them are used to call the near persons (ياأَ - أَي), and three are used to call the far persons (أَياآ - هَيَا), and one of them is used only for lamentation (النَّدْبَةُ) which is the article (وَا).
  • The following table shows all the seven articles:

وَا

هَيَا

أَيَا

آ

أَيْ

أَ

The vocative particles

  • From the above mentioned examples we notice that there are two essential parts in the vocative style (the article and the called noun).
  • We also notice that each of the vocative particles means (I call) except (wā) in the last two examples; it is rather meaning (I regret).
  • Types of Called Noun:

                          The called noun is divided into five types as follows:

  • The called proper noun (الْمُنادَى الْعَلَمُ):
  • The proper noun, as (مُحَمَّدُخالِدُ - مِصْرُ), is the noun which indicates a specific person, country, animal etc. When a proper noun falls in the place of called noun, it will be indeclinable on the sign of nominative case, i.e. without tanwīn as the indeclinable nouns. It will also be considered in place of accusative because it is a direct object of the eliminated verb of call. Consider the following examples:

Reason of the indeclension sign

Indeclension of the called noun

English

Arabic

Because it is singular noun

Indeclinable on đammah

Oh Muhammad, help your father

يا مُحَمَّدُ ساعِدْ وَالِدَكَ

Dual

Indeclinable on the Alif

Oh two Muhammads, be generous with the poor people

يا مُحَمَّدَانِ أَكْرِما الْفُقَرَاءَ

Sound masculine plural

Indeclinable on wāw

Oh Muhammads, help yourselves

يا مُحَمَّدُونَ ساعِدُوا أَنْفُسَكُم

  • From the above mentioned examples we clearly understand that the proper called noun is always indeclinable (signed without tanwīn) on the đammah for the singular, on the alif for the dual, and on the wāw for the sound masculine plural. For the sound feminine plural and the broken plural we naturally use the đammah without tanwīn (as the singular).
  • The intentional indefinite called nou(الْمُنادَى النَّكِرة المَقْصُودَة)
  • The intentional indefinite means that you call a certain person without using his proper noun, rather you use an indefinite genus (collective) noun as (يا رَجُلُ - يا مُسْلِمُ).
  • The indefinite noun is originally used to indicate an unknown or vague object. When we address our call to an indefinite noun, its vagueness (incertitude) disappears because of the call. Therefore it will be treated as the proper noun, i.e. it will be indeclinable on the sign of the nominative case (đammah for the singular, alif for the dual, and wāw for the sound masculine plural).

Reason

Indeclension sign

English

Arabic

Singular

Đammah

Oh Muslim, perform the prayer

يا مُسْلِمُ أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ

Dual

Alif

Oh two Muslims, go to the mosque

يا مُسْلِمانِ اِذْهَبا إلى الْمَسْجِدِ

Sound masculine plural

Wāw

Oh Muslims, defend your territories

يا مُسْلِمُونَ دافِعُوا عَنْ أَرْضِكُم

  • From the above mentioned examples we understand that when we read a sentence containing an indefinite called noun signed with the nominative sign without tanwīn, it means that the call is addressed to a certain person (intentional).
  • The non-intentional indefinite called noun(الْمُنَادى النَّكِرَة غَير المَقْصُودَة)
  • We use this type when we want to address the call to an indeterminate person (not to a certain person), i.e. to all the genus expressed by the collective noun, as (يا مُسْلِمًا) a call addressed to any Muslim.
  • This type has to be in the accusative case (i.e. signed originally with fatħah and tanwīn).
  • Consider the following examples:

Picture

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Oh doctor, don’t let patients feel pain

يا طَبِيبًا لا تَتْرِكِ المَرْضَى يَتَأَلَّمُونَ

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Oh merchant, fear (and obey) Allah, then your commerce will increase

يا تاجِرًا اِتَّقِ اللَّه تَزِدْ تِجَارَتُكَ

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Oh student, you have to respect your teachers

يا طالِبًا عَلَيْكَ اِحْتِرَامُ أَسَاتِذَتِكَ

  • To understand this type more clearly, consider attentively the difference between the two following sentences:

Explanation

Example

Type of called noun

English

Arabic

The call here is addressed to a certain doctor

Oh doctor, treat me.

يا طَبِيبُ داوِنِي

Intentional definite

The call here is addressed to any doctor

Oh doctor, treat me

يا طَبِيبًا داوِنِي

Non-intentional definite

  • From the above mentioned examples we clearly understand that the annexing called noun is always in the accusative case. In the examples no 1, 4, an 5 it is signed with fatħah (the original accusative sign), and in the examples no. 2 and 3 it is signed with yaa’ because it is dual or sound masculine plural, and in the example no. 6 it is signed with alif, because it is of the five nouns.
  • We also notice that the annexed noun (which follows the called noun) is always in the genitive case because it is (مُضاف إليه) which is respectively (الفَصْلِ - الشَّرِكَةِ - اللَّهِالعِراقَ - أَحْمَدَ).
  • You may also notice that the annexing called noun can form together with the annexed noun an Arabic proper name as (عَبْد الله - أُمَّ أَحْمَدَ - أبا أحمد)  in the examples above. The first part is treated separately as an annexing called noun (in the accusative case), and the second part is in the genitive case.
  • The similar to the annexing called noun(الْمُنَادَى الشَّبِيه بالْمُضاف)
  • The similar to the annexing noun is not followed by Muđâf ilaih, but it also needs a kind of complement to its meaning. Although it is noun, it makes the function of a verb, and can be followed by a doer, a pro-agent, or a direct object. This is called in the Arabic morphology (the similar quality الصِّفَة المُشَبَّهة). We will study this topic in lesson 100 In-Shaa’-Allaah (God willing).
  • If the called noun is similar quality it has to be in the accusative case with the tanwīn. There is no real annexation here to prevent the tanwīn. Consider the following examples:

Picture

English

Arabic

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Oh the one who fears the war, do not burn it

يا خَائِفًا الْحَرْبَ لا تُشْعِلْها

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Oh (Allah) Who knows the secrets, uncover not me (my sins)

يا عالِمًا الأَسْرَارَ لا تَفْضَحْنِي

Madinaharabic.com lesson image

Oh the one who drinks wines, you kill yourself

يا شَارِبًا الْخَمْرَ أَنْتَ تُهْلِكُ نَفْسَكَ

  • You may notice from the above mentioned examples that the similar to the annexed noun is different from the non-intentional indefinite noun. The non-intentional indefinite called noun does not need any complement to clarify its meaning, while the similar to the annexing noun need another noun to clear its meaning. Consider the following examples paying attention to the difference between the non-intentional indefinite and the similar to the annexing called noun:

Type of called noun

Example

English

Arabic

Non-intentional indefinite

Oh Muslim, do not disobey Allah

يا مُسْلِمًا لا تَعْصِ اللَّهَ

Non-intentional indefinite

Oh student, do not neglect (disregard) your lessons

يا طالِبًا لا تُهْمِلْ دُرُوسَكَ

Similar to the annexing noun

Oh the one who resigns himself (his face) to Allah.

يا مُسْلِمًا وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ

Similar to the annexing noun

Oh the one who seeks money, seeking knowledge is more useful

يا طَالِبًا المَالَ طَلَبُ العِلْمِ أَنْفَعُ

  • From the above mentioned examples you may notice that the same noun can be non-intentional indefinite and similar to the annexing noun according to the meaning. If it is non-intentional indefinite it will not be followed by another clarifying noun, and it will indicate an indeterminate person in the entire genus. If it is similar to the annexing noun it has to be followed by a complement, and it will make a function of a verb, and it will indicate an indeterminate person who makes the action of the virtual verb.
  • The following table summarizes all the types of the called nouns with examples:

Example

Declension

Type of called noun

English

Arabic

Oh Muhammad

يا مُحَمَّدُ

Indeclinable on the nominative sign

Proper noun

Oh Khalid

يا خالِدُ

Oh Mecca

يا مَكَّةُ

Oh London

يا لَنْدَنُ

Oh man (certain one)

يا رَجُلُ

Indeclinable on the nominative sign

Intentional indefinite noun

Oh doctor (certain one)

يا طَبِيبُ

Oh Imam (certain one)

يا شَيْخُ

Oh man (any man)

يا رَجُلاً

Declinable in the accusative case, with tanwīn

Non-intentional indefinite

Oh doctor (any doctor)

يا طَبِيبًا

Oh imam (any Imam)

يا شَيْخًا

Oh Abdullah (oh slave of Allah)

يا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ

Declinable in the accusative case, without tanwīn

Annexing noun

Oh the driver of the car

يا سَائِقَ السَّيَّارَةِ

Oh the one who drinks wine

يا شَارِبًا الْخَمْرَ

Declinable in the accusative case, with tanwīn

Similar to the annexing noun