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Lesson 75 – الدَّرْسُ الخَامِسُ والسَّبْعونَ

The exclusion (3of3)  - الاِسْـتِـثْـنَـاءُ (٣مِن٣)

Articles similar to the exclusion articles (/lā siyyamā/ and /bayda/) -  أَدَوات تُـشْـبِهُ الاسْتِـثْـناء (لاسِـيَّـما– بَـيْـدَ)

لاسِـيَّـما /lā siyyamā/

  • The article (lā siyyamā) consists of three words as follows:

a-       (lā) of generic negation لا النَّافِية لِلْجِنْس: We covered this negating particle in lesson 61.

b-       (siyya) سِيَّ: This is the noun of the above mentioned (lā). (siyya) is an Arabic noun meaning like or similar (not commonly used out of this structure). The predicate of (lā) in this structure is omitted.

c-       (mā) ما: This article has different considerations according to the declension of the excluded noun after it. If the excluded is in the nominative case, (mā) is considered as a relative noun, while if the excluded noun is in the genitive or in the accusative case, it will be considered as an augmented particle.

From the above mentioned details we can understand that the exclusion article لا سِـيَّـما /lā siyyamā/ means not excepting (especially, nothing similar to), so it is considered a similar to an excluding article (not a real excluding article). Please consider the following example:

English

Arabic

The students succeeded not excepting a hardworking student like you

نَجَحَ الطُّلَّابُ لاسِيَّما طَالبٍ مُجْتَهِدٍ مِثْلَكَ

The excluded after (lā siyyamaa) can be a definite or an indefinite noun. If it is indefinite noun it has three probable cases of declension (nominative, accusative, or genitive), and If it is definite noun it has two cases of declension (nominative or genitive) as follows:

a-    When the excluded is indefinite as in the following sentence:

English

Arabic

Every hardworking person likes his language not excepting a student like you

كُلُّ مُجْتَهِدٍ يُحِبُّ لُغَتَهُ لاسِيَّما طالِبٌ/طَالِبًا/طالِبٍ مِثْلكَ

·         As you notice in the above mentioned example, the indefinite excluded noun can be in one of the following three declension cases:

1-    Nominative case: In this consideration the excluded noun is a predicate which has the subject omitted. In this case (mā) is considered a relative noun (اسْمٌ موْصُول).

2-    Accusative case: Being considered as a distinctive to the noun (siyya). We studied the distinctive in lesson 72.

3-    Genitive case: Here the excluded noun is considered (muđâf ilaihi) annexed to the (muđâf ) which is the noun (siyya). We studied the Iđâfa (annexation) in lesson 5 of this course.

b-    When the excluded is a definite noun as in the following sentence:

English

Arabic

The students attended not excepting Khalid

حَضَرَ الطُّلاَّبُ لاسِيَّما خالِدٌ/ خَالِدٍ

In the above mentioned example we notice that the excluded noun has only two probable cases of declension as follows:

1-    Nominative case, being considered as a predicate which has the subject omitted.

2-    Genitive case, being considered as (muđâf ilaihi) annexed to the noun (siyya).

More examples:

-          Lā siyyamā can also be used with the meaning of (specially). In this case it will be considered an absolute object مَفْعُول مُطْلَقٌ (lesson 67), and the excluded will be declinable as its normal position in the sentence (i.e. it can be a status, a conditional phrase, a circumstancial phrase). Consider the following examples:

The declension of the excluded

English

Arabic

Status

I like reading specially (when I am) alone

أُحِبُّ الْقِرَاءَةَ لاسِيَّما مُنْفَرِدًا.

Circumstantial phrase

I like thinking quietly, specially between trees

أُفَضِّلُ التَّفْكِيرَ بِهُدوءٍ لاسِيَّما بينَ الأَشْجارِ.

Circumstantial phrase

I practice sport specially after dawn

أُمارِسُ الرِّياضَةَ لاسِيَّما بَعْدَ الْفَجْرِ.

Conditional sentence

I like coffee specially if it is with milk

أُحِبُّ الْقَهْوَةَ لاسِيَّما إذا كانت معَ اللَّبنِ.

 

Bayda بَيْدَ

·         Bayda is the second article which is similar to the exclusion articles. It is always an accusative noun, followed by (anna) أنَّ in Iđâfa (annexation structure). The declension with bayda is always a detached exclusion, i.e. the included and the excluded are not of the same genus. /Bayda anna/ بَيْدَ أنَّ means although.

·         The sentence after /bayda anna/ has to be a nominal sentence which has the subject accusative because of the annuller /anna/ أنَّ meaning indeed (we studied inna and its sisters in lesson 60). Consider the following examples: